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Chapter 1

Sociology 2267A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Walter Dill Scott, Western Electric, Occupational Health Psychology


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 2267A/B
Professor
Elizabeth Hayden
Chapter
1

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Psy 2061 Chapter 1 Note - PX
Intro to I/O Psy
Intro, History and Development of I/O Psy
32 million people live in Canada
74% working, 17 million
majority work in the service sector
Definition of I/O Psy:
A field of both scientific research and professional practice that aims to further the welfare of people by
understanding the behaviour of individuals and organizations in the workplace, helping individuals pursue
meaningful and enriching work, and assisting organizations in the eective management of their human
resources, 2 (Both Science and Practice, understand behaviour, and help, both individual and organizations)
have many overlap with other subjects - both research, practice in psychology and business
The function of IOPsy is expanding, new trends:
Occupational Health Psychology
A field of research and practice that is based, at least partially, on I/O psychology and is concerned
with the health and safety of individuals at work, 3
The Scientist - Practitioner Perspective:
The view that I/O psychology focuses on both scientific research and applied professional practice, 3
Social Scientist: understand and explain
Applied Scientist: Help, practice
Training in I/O Psy
psy undergrad, master/PhD
internship under a IO Psychologist
History of I/O Psy
Early Years
Influences
Economic - Need more eciency
Social - Evolution / Protestant / Capitalism
Psy - Scientific Method
Wilhelm Wundt - Lab - starting point of I/O Psy and his students:
Walter Dill Scott - First person in North America in Applied Psychology
Hugo Munsterberg
promoter of applied psychology
first I/O Psychologist
His book is the first book for I/O Psy (Psychology and Industrial Eciency)
THE FOUNDER OF I/O PSY
WW I - the US most ecient way possible to hire people for war
Robert Yerkes
Army Alpha
A measure of cognitive ability developed for placement of U.S. soldiers during World War I, 7
Army Beta
A nonverbal intelligence test developed for placement of U.S. soldiers during World War I, 7
Prove the value of the test - the theme of the IOP then is Selection and Placement & Training
of Individuals in Orgs
Job Analysis - A way of understanding job tasks and requirements through systematic analysis, 8
Prove that psychology can be applied to industry
Between Wars
Hawthorne Studies @ Western Electric Company -
Lighter of the workplaceproductivity goes up,
Darker of the workplaceproductivity goes up!
Hawthorne Eect - by just pay attention to the workers, the productivity go up
The suggestion that any intervention will have the desired effect, 8
People start to think what other things can aect organization’s productivity - Organizational Psy
WW II - Emergency Committee in Psychology
Psychologists into aviation psychology program - John Flanagan -
Critical Incident Technique
A widely used technique of job analysis developed by Flanagan, 9
Assessment center
A widely used selection technique, originally developed to select potential spies, 9
Wider focus on the IOP, selection, training and others. - Samuel Stouffer - The American Soldier
post traumatic stress reaction
Post WW II
economics booming, business up and up, topics such as motivation and leadership are emerging.
Civil Rights Act passed in 1964
non-discrimination
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