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Chapter 1-14

Sociology 2267A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-14: Performance Appraisal, Job Analysis, Job Performance


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 2267A/B
Professor
Elizabeth Hayden
Chapter
1-14

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Chapter 1
Army Alpha
A measure of cognitive ability developed for placement of U.S. soldiers during World War I, 7
Army Beta
A nonverbal intelligence test developed for placement of U.S. soldiers during World War I, 7
assessment centre
A widely used selection technique, originally developed to select potential spies, 9
critical incident
technique
A widely used technique of job analysis developed by Flanagan, 9
cyberaggression
The expression of aggression through computer-mediated communication (e.g., email), 16
Hawthorne effect
The suggestion that any intervention will have the desired effect, 8
industrial/organizatio
nal (I/O) psychology
A field of both scientific research and professional practice that aims to further the welfare of
people by understanding the behaviour of individuals and organizations in the workplace,
helping individuals pursue meaningful and enriching work, and assisting organizations in the
effective management of their human resources, 2
job analysis
A way of understanding job tasks and requirements through systematic analysis, 8
M test
A Canadian cognitive ability test developed during World War II, 11
occupational health
psychology
A field of research and practice that is based, at least partially, on I/O psychology and is
concerned with the health and safety of individuals at work, 3
presenteeism
The notion that individuals show up to work even though they might be sick and not capable
of working up to their normal standard, 16
scientist-practitioner
perspective 3
The view that I/O psychology focuses on both scientific research and applied professional
practice, 3
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Chapter 2
bias
Systematic errors in measurement, or inferences made from measurements, that are related
to different identifiable group membership characteristics such as age, sex, or race, 49
error score or
measurement error
The hypothetical difference between an observed score and a true score, 34
ethics
The determination of right and wrong; the standards of appropriate conduct or behaviour for
members of a profession (i.e., what those members may or may not do), 51
experimentation
Involves active manipulation of variables by a researcher and control of environmental factors
to exclude alternate explanations for the observed results, 29
fairness
The principle that every test taker should be assessed in an equitable manner, 50
hypothesis
A proposition about the relation between two or more events, objects, people, or phenomena,
27
measurement
The assignment of numbers to aspects of events, objects, people, or phenomena according to
a set of rules or conventions, 32
measurement scale
A set of rules by which numbers may be assigned to aspects of events, objects, people, or
phenomena, 35
observed score
Any score assigned to an attribute or characteristic of an individual through a measurement
process; thought to be a combination of true scores and measurement error, 34
operational
definitions
Define abstract constructs in terms of specific procedures and measures, 28
random errors
Errors that vary in unpredictable ways upon repeated measurement, 34
reliability
The degree to which observed scores are free from random measurement errors; an
indication of the stability or dependability of a set of measurements over repeated applications
of the measurement procedure, 39
systematic errors
Errors that occur upon repeated measurements; also known as the occurrence of bias in the
measurements, 40
true score
The average score that an individual would earn on an infinite number of administrations of
the same test or parallel versions of the same test, 34
validity
The degree to which accumulated evidence and theory support specific interpretations of test

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scores in the context of the test’s proposed use, 43
validity
generalization
The application of validity evidence, obtained through meta analysis of data obtained from
many situations, to other situations, which are similar to those on which the meta analysis is
based, 47
variables
Events, objects, people, or phenomena that vary in amount, degree, or kind with respect to
certain aspects, 28
Chapter 3
competencies
Groups of related behaviours that are needed for successful job performance in an
organization, 79
competency
dictionary
A listing of all of the competencies required by an organization to achieve its mandate, along
with the proficiency level required to perform successfully in different functional groups or
positions, 81
competency profile
A set of proficiency ratings related to a function, job, or employee, 82
core competencies
Characteristics that every member of an organization, regardless of position, function, job, or
level of responsibility within the organization, is expected to possess, 80
functional
competencies
Characteristics shared by different positions within an organization (i.e., a group of related or
similar jobs); only those members of an organization in these positions are expected to
possess these competencies, 80
job description
A written description of what job occupants are required to do, how they are supposed to do it,
and the rationale for any required job procedures, 62
job specification
The knowledge, skills, abilities, and other attributes that are needed by a job incumbent to
perform well on the job, 63
job-specific
competencies
Characteristics that apply only to specific positions within the organization; only those people
in the position are expected to possess these competencies, 80
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