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Chapter 7&8

Sociology 2267A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 7&8: Informal Social Control, Sampson, Infor

Course Code
SOC 2267A/B
Tara L Fidler- Bruno

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Chapter 7
New theoretical perspectives on youth crime
Low self-control
-a trait made up of impulsivity, short-sightedness, risk-taking, physicality,
insensitivity, and low frustration tolerance, which leaves individuals less able to refrain
from activities that provide short-term pleasure or gain.
Social bonds
-the degree to which individuals, through socialization, have connections to
people and institutions in a society and believe in the rules of the society. These
connections serve as restraints against criminal opportunities and behaviour.
Strain theory (agnew 1992,2001)
-experiences or situations that individuals perceive as being negative emotional
reaction that provides the possible incentive for using crime as a coping mechanism.
-Conditional factors(self-esteem, low social control) > negative emotions >
criminal coping
-Types of stain
-Failure to achieve goals
-removal of positive stimuli
-Presentation of negative stimuli overlapping strains
Age-graded theory of social control (sampson & Laud) (aka age-graded theory of
informal social control)
-the control over peoples behaviour that develops as a result of relationships and
attachments to significant others and investments in conventional activities that could
be damaged by engaging in illegal activities
-Studies when offenders start, why they start and why they continue
Mechanisms of informal social control
-within family: attachment, monitoring, consistent discipline
Disrupted social control
-events or life circumstances that weaken or destroy the relationships,
attachments, and activities that provide barriers to engaging in criminal activities.
Cumulative continuity
-a development model that outlines how crime in adolescence has negative
consequences for future life choices, including education, relationships, and
employment, and increases the likelihood that criminal behaviour will continue into
adulthood. These in turn undermine further life chances, escalating the probabilities of
continued, persistent criminal behaviour.
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