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Classical Sociological Theory 19..29 50..82.docx

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Sociology 2270A/B
Scott Schaffer

Classical Sociological Theory 19 – 29 The Idea of Society: - society may be defined as a functional system, or the product of meaningful interaction among individuals, or the sum of social institutions - people are related to each other from love and friendship, family and community through large-scale organizations (school, business, etc.) to the growing social connections linking the whole world - there had to be a separation of the idea of society from government  emphasize all the links connecting the members to each other - distinguished social relations from control by kings/government officials - ―civil society‖ = churches/NGO, volunteers repose to social problems  distinct from government agencies - what happens in a society was valuable in itself  Adam Smith – Division of Labour - not only a matter of noticing the importance of social organization, but also a matter of valuing ordinary life - society is an explicit place for the rights of subjects appears in political thought  Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau - serve interest of people  USA and French Revolution - people had to develop in ways like expressing opinions (like in a democracy)  act collectively (voting, protest, etc.) - society is distinct from government, ordinary social life is valuable, and people can achieve enough social solidarity to unite it meaningful to speak - 17 and 18 centuries saw rise of new ideas about science and human reason Enlightenment and Science: - ―Age of Enlightenment‖ - ―light of reason‖ to illuminate a path of human progress, clarifying both the ways things worked objectively in the world and the values human beings should rightly hold - revolutions  humans choose social conditions of their own lives, not accepting institutions they inherited - Descartes suggested that people should think for themselves and that reason was often a better basis for judgement than tradition - evidence for truth should be found in observations of the material world - Kant  ―religion within the limits of reason alone‖  wasn’t necessary to rely on mysterious revelations, but rather that God had endowed humans was sufficient (exercise individual reason) - more books came out with invention of printing press  growth in literacy and education - equality rights for males and females  all had capacity for reason, had basic rights - Thomas Paine – Common Sense  American Revolution - Wollstonecraft  women’s rights = reasonable Authors and Readings: - Hobbes – Leviathan  people are naturally equal, the strongest can be overtaken by others; skills in one area outweighs skills and strengths of others - people are by nature competitors trying to gain at others expense  state of war/nature - no industry, no culture, no society, violent - life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short - what makes this premise true is that we lock our doors at night to protect us; even with a state protection - solution = power of common wealth, people must give up their rights in order for the commonwealth to rule the state  Social Contract - Rousseau  individual reason - science brings people unhappiness by separating them from nature - man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains - others create boundaries and excludes people - Kant = idealism  secure human knowledge and morality came not from external imposition but from inherent capacities of the human mind - we need to look critically at such beliefs in pursuit of the truth - Smith  humans would be bound together by natural sympathies and that human sentiments included benevolent dispositions as well as sources of conflict - Wealth of Nations: 1) Market taught sensible behaviour by a kind of external condition  buy cheap 2) Lead people with different skills or properties to cooperate through exchange  circulating goods and boosting production 3) Invisible hand, self-regulated - only works among humans, they are relatively equal - some things provided by government to protect people Classical Sociological Theory 50 – 54 - enlightenment is man’s leaving his self-caused immaturity - not using one’s intelligence without some guiding you - caused by lack of determination and courage - Sapere Aude!  Have the courage to use your own intelligence - people one lazy; if they pay for it, others will do this tedious job - only arrive at enlightenment through revolution - freedom for men to make public use of his reason in all matters - Restriction: Private use of a men’s reason may often be restricted rather narrowly without thereby unduly hampering the progress of enlightenment—you’re not getting your opinion out, therefore you must obey - new generations are able to change the old laws and rules as new ideas are understood Classical Sociological Theory 55 – 65 Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations Of the Division of Labour: - carried furthest in some very trifling ones; not that it is carried further in them than in other of mere importance - those which supply the same wants of a small numbers of people, whole number of workmen must be small, employed in different branches of work - making a division more observed  the bigger it is Example: pin making: - one man does everything to make it, not productive - divisions make it quicker with one person doing a certain job that contributes to the making of a pin - the improvement of the dexterity increases the quantity of work he can perform; and the division of labour; by reducing everyman’s business into an operation - save time - it is impossible to pass very quickly from one kind of work to another, that is carried on at a different place with different tools - get more people, reduce quantity of work - everybody must be sensible how much labour is facilitated and abridged by the application of proper machinery - easier way to reach goal - directed towards are simply object, improves work - each individual becomes an expert in their division - more work is done - employs a lot of workers Of The Principle Which Gives Occasion Of The Division Of Labour: - Division of Labour is a necessary consequence of a certain propensity in human nature which has in view we such extensive utility - the propensity to truck, barter, and exchange one thing for another - common to all men - dogs don’t exchange bones with other dogs - co-operation and assistance of great multitudes, while his whole life is scare sufficient to gain the friendship of a few persons - he will be more likely to prevail if he can interest their self-love in his favour, and show them for his own advantage to do for them want is required of them - nobody but a beggar chooses to depend chiefly upon the benevolence of his fellow citizen - by trade, we obtain from one another the greater part of the mutual good offices which we stand in need of, so it is the same trucking disposition which originally gives occasion to the division of labour - a person who makes guns, exchanges them for food/what is hunted  becoming his business - encourages every man to apply himself to a particular occupation, and to cultivate and bring to perfection whatever talent or genius he may posses for that particular species of business - talents arise from habit, education, and custom - all have duties to perform, and work - each animal is still obliged to support and defend itself, separately and independently, and derives no sort of advantage from that variety of talent
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