The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte 
Hegel remarks somewhere that all facts and personages of great importance in world
history occur, as it were, twice. He forgot to add: the first time as tragedy, the second as
Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they not make
it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly
encountered, given and transmitted from the past.
In like manner a beginner who has learnt a new language always translates it back into
his mother tongue, but he has assimilated the spirit of the new language and can freely
express himself in it only when he finds his way in it without recalling the old and forgets
his native tongue in the use of the new.
Consideration of this world-historical necromancy reveals at once a salient difference.
Camille Desmoulins, Danton, Robespierre, Saint-Just, Napoleon, the heroes as well as
the parties and the masses of the old French Revolution, performed the task of their
time in Roman costume and with Roman phrases, the task of unchaining and setting up
modern bourgeois society. The first ones knocked the feudal basis to pieces and
mowed off the feudal heads which had grown on it.
New social formation once established
Bourgeois society in its sober reality had begotten its true interpreters and mouthpieces
in the Says, Cousins, Royer- Collards, Benjamin Constants and Guizots; its real
commanders sat behind the counter, and the hog-headed Louis XVIII was its political
chief. Wholly absorbed in the production of wealth and in peaceful competitive struggle,
it no longer comprehended that ghosts from the days of Rome had watched over its
cradle. But unheroic as bourgeois society is, it nevertheless took heroism, sacrifice,
terror, civil war and battles of peoples to bring it into being.
Gladiators found the ideals and the art forms, the self-deceptions that they needed in
order to conceal from themselves the bourgeois limitations of the content of their
struggles and to maintain their passion on the high plane of great historical tragedy.
Resurrection of the dead in those revolutions served the purpose of glorifying the new
struggles, not of parodying the old; of magnifying the given task in imagination, not of
feeling from its solution in reality; of finding once more the spirit of revolution, not of
making its ghost walk about again.
Social revolution of the nineteenth century cannot draw its poetry from the past, but only
from the future. It cannot begin with itself before it has stripped off all superstition about
the past. Earlier revolutions required recollections of past world history in order to dull
themselves to their own content. Must let the dead bury their dead.
February revolution… conjured away by a cardsharper's trick, and what seems
overthrown is no longer the monarchy but the liberal concessions that were wrung from
it by centuries of struggle.
State only returned to its oldest form, to the shamelessly simple domination of the sabre
and the cowl.
During the years 1848 to 1851 French society made up, and that by an abbreviated
because revolutionary method, for e studies and experiences which, in a regular, so to
speak, textbook course of development, would have had to precede the February
revolution, if it was to be more than a ruffling of the surface. Society now seems to have
fallen back behind its point of departure; it has in truth first to create for itself the
revolutionary point of departure, the situation, the relations, the conditions under which
alone modern evolution becomes serious.
Bourgeois revolutions, like those of the eighteenth century, storm swiftly from success
to success, their dramatic effects outdo each other, men and things seem set in
sparkling brilliants, ecstasy is the everyday spirit, but they are short-lived, soon they
have attained their zenith, and a long crapulent depression seizes society before it
learns soberly to assimilate the results of its storm-and-stress period.
Proletarian revolutions, criticise themselves distantly, interrupt themselves continually in
their own course, come back to the apparently accomplished in order to begin it afresh,
deride with unmerciful thoroughness the inadequacies, weaknesses and paltrinesses of
their first attempts, seem to throw down their adversary only in order that he may draw
new strength from the earth and rise again, more gigantic, before them, and recoil again
and again from the indefinite prodigiousness of their own aims, until a situation has
been created which makes all turning back impossible, and the conditions themselves
cry out Here is the rose, here dance!
every fairly competent must have had a presentiment that an unheard-of fiasco was in
store for the revolution.
weakness had taken refuge in a belief in miracles, fancied the enemy overcome when it
had only conjured him away in imagination, and lost all understanding of the present in
a passive glorification of the future in store for it and of the deeds it petto but which it
merely did not want as yet to make public. Those heroes who seek to disprove their
proven incapacity by offering each other their sympathy and getting together in a crowd
had tied up their bundles, collected their laurel wreaths in advance and were just then
engaged in discounting on the exchange market the republics in partibus for which they
had already providently organised the government personnel with all the calm of their
unassuming disposition. December 2 struck them like a thunderbolt from a clear sky, and the peoples that in
periods of pusillanimous depression gladly let their inward apprehension be drowned
out by the loudest bawlers will have perhaps convinced themselves that the times are
past when the cackle of geese could save the Capitol.
First Period, from February 24, to May 4:
Prologue to the revolution. Its character was officially expressed in the fact that the
government improvised by it declared itself that it was provisional and, like the
government, everything that was mooted, attempted or enunciated during this period
proclaimed itself to be only provisional.
All the elements that had prepared or determined the revolution, the dynastic
opposition, the republican bourgeoisie, the democratic-republican petty bourgeoisie and
the Social-Democratic workers, provisionally found their place in the February
February days originally aimed at an electoral reform, by which the circle of the
politically privileged among the possessing class itself was to be widened and the
exclusive domination of the finance aristocracy overthrown.
National Guard maintained a passive attitude, the army offered no serious resistance
and the monarchy ran away, the republic appeared to be a matter of course. Every
party construed it in its own way. Having secured it arms in hand; proletariat impressed
its stamp upon it and proclaimed it to be a social republic. There w