Measurement: assigning numbers/labels to units of analysis to represent conceptual properties. We fully describe our methods and procedures so that others can replicate, observe and judge the quality of our measurements. Goal is to specify clearly observable referents of the terms that are in your hypothesis. The process consists of moving from the abstract (concepts) concrete (measures of concepts) The first step is to clarify the concepts that are in your theories and hypothesis with words so that you can arrive at a conceptual definition. Theoretical definitions direct the search for appropriate measures of concepts and allow others to evaluate the meaning of one"s research findings. Conceptualization: process of formulating and clarifying concepts: linked to theory testing and construction. It usually continues through research as theories and their constituent concepts are refined and elaborated. Often involves careful distinctions among similar ideas and breaking down the concept into various components or dimensions.