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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Education.docx

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Sociology 1020
Kim Luton

Education - Functions of Education: - Socialization: - In school learn about the values/norms of society - Learn about the eventual responsibilities that an individual has to assume as an adult - Formal curriculum-> Learn how to read, write and do mathematical equations - Hidden curriculum-> Learn crucial information for the necessary functioning of everyday life - We learn how to behave in certain ways - Functionalism-> Education fulfills specific needs within society as part of a sociological tradition - Education helps to internalize these values/norms as part of a persons personality - Key function of education is to direct young people towards competitive/achievement oriented demands of adult life - Education and Social Inequality: - Functionalist sociologists argue that inequality is necessary for a modern society and is based on meritocratic principles - Meritocracy-> Persons are selected for social positions based on achievement in accordance with universal standards - Conflict theorists argue that inequalities are based on ascribed characteristics - Schools perpetuate the inequalities within society - Schools keep dominant groups in power, oppress lower groups - Gender: - Feminists studied struggles of women to be educated/allowed into universities - Look at gendered interactions in classroom/gender stereotyping in curriculum - Feminists argue women’s experiences are disregarded in curriculum - More recent data shows women surpassed men in educational attainment - Women are still more likely to be found in gender-typical occupations - Women are held back by ‘glass ceiling’ which means that women can see the top but cant reach it - Ethnicity: - Members of ethnic minorities have above average educational attainment (Jews/Mormons) - Autonomous minorities-> Minorities in a numerical sense - Groups are integrated into mainstream culture of society and see relationship with educational system as no different - Voluntary Minorities-> Immigrants who have moved to a different country voluntarily - Purpose of immigration is to improve children’s opportunities/education - Involuntary Minorities-> Needs of this group is seen as an opposition to the main stream - Least likely to see cultural values reflected in educational system (which gives less motivation towards education) - Critical pedagogy-> Looks at ways in which education can be a tool for empowering and bringing upon social change - Argues that education should enable students/teachers to understand roles in education system/social institutions - Social Class: - Social class is the most important factor of education/job attainment - Parents level of education is strongly in relation to their child’s occupational hopes - Resistance Theory: - Paul Willis conducted a study about a group of boys in England who could be seen as deviants within the education system - He found that these boys were looking forward to leaving school and working manual labor jobs - They actively rejected middle-class values-> Embraced working class values - Work has come to be known as ‘Resistance Theory’ - Rational Choice Theory: - Proposes that individuals make decisions based on how they can maximize return from investments made on education - Individuals from lower class families less likely to
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