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Chapter 7

Gender Relations Chapter 7.docx

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Western University
Sociology 1020
Kim Luton

Gender Relations - Biological and Social Determinism: - Women predicted to live to 81.4 years - Men predicted to live to 75.9 years - Is this biology? If consider factors of smoking, unprotected sex, alcohol consumption then no - Social variables affect gender gap - Normal range of age at death for women/men is much greater than gap separating the two genders - Within Variation-> Comparing males to males, females to females - Between Variation-> Comparing males to females - Remembering Research Methods When Studying Gender Differences: - After hearing scout master abusing scouts some people will claim that homosexuals are pedophiles - 90% of pedophiles are heterosexual - Pedophilia is a constant not a variable - Sexual orientation is the cause (independent variable) and pedophilia is the dependent variable - Numeracy and Literacy Differences: - Female students overrepresented in humanities/social sciences - Males dominate mathematics, technology and sciences - Women with superior math abilities earn equal or higher wages compared to men - Duffy, Warren, Walsh found that female mathematics teachers interact with male students more than female - Women/men have differences in brain structure - Sex and Gender- Some Definitions: - Sex/Gender are not same - Sex is a biological trait (estrogen for female, tester one for male) - Gender is socially constructed-> Based on norms/expectations of gender appropriate behavior - Gender can be seen as achieved status - Gender Identity-> Perception of yourself as male/female - Gendered order-> Macro level concept and refers to social structure - Gendered Division of Labor-> Females/males tend to act gender appropriately - Structural Functionalism: - Social practices continue because they benefit in society/ maintain social stability - Public Realm-> Tasks needed for survival. In competitive work place need to be strong/smart - Private realm-> Home, being responsible for emotional support. Private sphere less valued than public realm - Assume that a family needs both mother/father - Heterosexual unions are the only type of union - When husband is in public realm, he is more crucial than the woman - Symbolic Interactionism: - View the world as socially constructed/changeable - Definitions of masculinity/ feminity/gender roles/gender norms are all negotiable - Brown/Gilligan argue that children learn gender behavior through imitating others, reward/punishment - Behavior is affected by what is seen as gender appropriate-> Types of clothes, amount of food - Stereotypes can be changed but it is a slow process - Marxist Conflict Perspective: - Emphasis on economic forces - Concentrating on ethnic/racial/gender inequalities instead of social class inequalities can lead to division/fighting within groups - Will also delay revolution of working class against ruling class - Feminist Perspectives: - All feminists concur that patriarchy is the main force behind women’s oppression - Patriarchy-> Belief that traits associated with men are more valuable than traits associated with women - Liberal feminism-> Gender inequality can be fixed by giving women greater opportunity - Basic assumption is essential eq
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