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Western University
Sociology 1020
Kim Luton

SOCIOLOGY 1020 Connor Leskiw Updated September 15 2013Goals of sociology describe social world explain the how and why critique existing social arrangements It is looking through a different lens focusing on patterned group behaviour Although there will be exceptions watch are the patterns Try to answer how group affect action not individual basedAuguste Comte1938 is father of sociology a new way of looking at the world coined term sociologyWanted to understand rapid social change that was occurring as the church lost power over society ththduring the industrialization the influence and addition of science and technology 1719 centuries Focused on the rapid shift from agrarian to manufactured society Believed in positivism understanding the world based on science not religion and understanding society through the scientific method Peter Berger must see the general in the particulars Wright Mills sociological imagination must be able to stand outside an everyday level and look at the world from different perspectivesTheory is a statement of HOW and WHY certain facts are RELATED it is a lens to explain patterns based on theoretical paradigms perspective the basic image of society that will guide thinking and research The systematic study of social behaviour in human societies IncludeLevels of AnalysisBiography human agency ability to actMilieu family sense of belongingHistory societystructures Must use 3 levels to incorporate into ones understanding Public troubles vs private issues affects massStructuration TheoryAnthony Giddens double involvement of self in society we impact society and society impacts usproducts of your society and producers of your societyan ability to changeFunctionalismborrowed from 3 major concepts of biology and medicine FUNCTION social arrangements exist because they benefit society and point to the importance of each part of society for the whole ex body parts work together to benefit the whole body EQUILIBRIUM based on balance among parts society will return to equilibrium after it adapts to occasional inevitable changeoptions dysfunctionDIFFERENTIAION change is gradual society will adapt over timeStructural Functionalism Macrolevel orientation BROAD PATTERNS shape society Structures are the invisible stable patterns of social behaviours ex Gender race class age group Institutions invisible are the subsystems that create patterns of relationships the basis of status Ex Family education media government Manifest Functions open conscious functions of the inst organized and recognized consequences of a societal aspect Latent Functions the unconscious or unintended functions that may reflect hidden purposes of the inst Ex education systemEufunction marks the positive benefits for maintaining societal equilibrium Dysfunction is an element of process of society that can disrupt a social systemreduce stability Ex divorce of a familyCRITIQUE too broad and ignores the inequities of social class race and gender The focus of stability is at the expense of the value of conflict and it assumes the presence of natural orderTherefore it has declined in recent years 1 SOCIOLOGY 1020 Connor Leskiw Updated September 15 2013 Normal state of the system is equilibriumstability is paramount Any changes in one structure or institution result in change in another change is disruptive to society Every institution has a functionpurpose and that is why it exists in society there is a widespread consensus of societal valuesEmilie Durkheim saw rapid social change in Europe experienced the shift from agrarian to industrialized society social solidarity people were without directionanomie normlessness Mechanical Solidarity small communities tradition shared independence agrarian society Organic Solidarity cohesion in industrialized societies everyone is different and relies on others for resources not help like farmers The key to societal change is the expansion of the division of labour how many jobs are required to sustain the growth Preindustrial industries have a SIMPLE div of labtraditionmechanical sol Modern societies have COMPLEX div of labfunctional interdependenceorganic solSociety is a social system it has basic needs for survival structures and institutions fulfill these needs ex families SUICIDES social factors Represent a social problem a lost sense of belonging Rates vary by gender age mar status occupation Summer Wednesdays have highest rate 50 states Egoistic lack of social ties altruistic excess social tiesAnomic lack of regulationrulesfatalistic excess of regulationrule ADD WHO IS LIKELY TO COMMIT WHATCONFLICT THEORY Macro orientation that views society as an arena of inequalities that prove the basis for conflict struggle and need for social change It is a reactioncontrast to functionalism Still a broad social structure that highlights division based on the inequality present Society should be structured in a way to benefit few at the expense of many It is the power not functional independence that hold a society together When there is conflict between groupsclasses is necessary because people want to get ahead this is only done through radical upheavals and drastic change to fuel change Conflict not harmony is the natural state of a society Dominant vs minority group relationsprotest the privileged the disadvantaged attempt to gain moreThe access to wealth power prestige must be linked to limited distribution of scarce resources There is a limited degree of consensus so society doesnt fall apart All societies have 2 groupsdominant and oppressed Exploiting workersmax profit min wageCAPITALISMALIENATIONfrom act of working no say in production products of work no ownership other workers high comp many wanting same job human potential not fulfilled boring workIs easily done because of the few selling work controlling the many dying to buy work Came from rapid expansion of 1960s but is still too broad pursues practical goals less scientific Ignores shared value and concept of interdependence KARL MARX father of conflict theory has always been class struggle It is the economic processes modes of production that determine all processes of social change Basis of inequality ownership control over means of productioncreates the social categories of class bourgeoisie vs proletariatThe economic insulation determines rest of societys institutions class consciousness is basis for class conflict from the differences of class interestsfor proletariats everyone is in the same boat so they must come together to develop the CCrevolution elimination of inequalitiesAlso believes social institutions are societies subsystems to meet basic human needs Form follows function all major inst operate in accordance with the economic systemFalse consciousness thought that social problems are grounded in individual not societys shortcomings 2 SOCIOLOGY 1020 Connor Leskiw Updated September 15 2013MILLS personal troubles vs public problems Symbolic Interactionism Micro perspective everyday life perspective Society arises as a shared reality Symbol something that meaningfully represents something else Most interaction is symbolic languages gestures Based on often shared personal subjective experiences Recognition of individuals in society active agents Involves seeing the same thing but interpreting them differently symbols mean different things to different people Behaviours and attitudes therefore depend on how one perceivesdefines the construct abstract quality hard to measure Learning theory understand individuals learn in a variety of ways Rational Choice theoryMarginal Value theory Game theory WI Thomas what we define as real is real in its consequences Perspective Must understand actors definition because it will be real for themHow you define a situation is how you act in itWhat we want influences what we learnwhat we learn influences what we wantMAX WEBER Father of symb Interactionism Idealism the way people think can bring about change Verstehen to understand Mills adds biography milieu society also no universal understanding He agrees with MARX about economic importance but says there are other just as important things No single factor determines society or an individual Economic changes religion urbanization law politics tech etc all influence society individuals Social conflict can originate in values status etc Religious idealism was the driving force predestinationWrote Protestant Ethic and the Rise of Capitalism 1904ruling classes use beliefs to legitimate their position so that other classes will cooperate in their own subordination Rationalization of societychange from tradition to rationality deliberate matter of fact calc of the most efficient way to do a jobFeminism Main focus on Gender is embedded in all cultures can be used to support conflict theoryNot focused on multiple variables gender crosscuts all aspects of social life Is the study of womens lives MACRO constraints and forms of resistance in womens lives political primary family care giverMICRO reproduction of gender through lang and emotion management women expressive men instrumental thMaternal Fem early 19 cent Moral crusaders improve society wanted to reduce drinking in working class men spending pay packs at bar in one night Temperance improvement womens suffrageGender socially determined Sex biologically determinedLiberal Femearly 60sBetty Friedan women gaining equality via educationjob access Radical FemPatriarchy society set up to benefit menuniversal cause of womens oppression Women organize separately then men to protect their interests ex radical women groups etc Socialist FemMarxist Gender inequalities based on economic factors goes back to class inequalitiesWomen organize WITH MEN of same class to reduce problems of gender inequality level playing fieldRadicals say patriarchyhas been around longer than capitalismCommon characteristics gender inequalities are not biologically determined but social constructed argumentPatriarchy is present in almost all societies 3
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