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Sociology (1,821)
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Chapter 3

Soc 1020 Chapter 3 textbook notes.pdf

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Sociology 1020
Kim Luton

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Sociology Chapter 3 Textbook Notes Culture Some Basic Concepts- Values and Norms Values: are shared, relatively general beliefs that define what is desirable and what is undesirable; they specify general preferences Norms: are relatively precise rules specifying which behaviours are permitted and which are prohibited for group members • when a member of a group breaks a group norm by engaging in prohibited behaviour, other group members will typically sanction the deviant member • to sanction is to communicate disapproval to the deviant member • different individuals holding the same set of cultural values can express those values differently in their day-to-day life • an example of a norm is the distance we maintain when we talk to each other Folkways: are those norms that do not evoke severe condemnation when violated. Ex. someone running through campus naked is embarrassing but not morally outraging Mores: are those norms whose violation does provoke strong moral condemnation (sexual assault) • the difference between the two above is the nature of the reaction produced by the violation of the norm Role: is a cluster of behavioural expectations associated with a particular social position within a group or society Role Conflict: situations in which the behavioural expectations associated with one role are inconsistent with those associated with another concurrent role • the general point to be made here is that every role is a cluster of expectations about behaviour, but this clustering varies from culture to culture Subculture: a group of ppl within a single society who possess, in addition to the cultural elements they share with the other members of society, certain distinctive cultural elements that set them apart Institution: when the members of a society or a subculture agree that a specific set of norms and values should regulate some board area of social life, such as the economy, family life, religion, or politics, then that set of norms and values is called an institution Popular Culture: refers to those cultural objects and beliefs that are widely distributed across all social classes in a society Urban Legends:are stories with the following characteristics: 1. they are passed along mainly by word of mouth 2. the people who repeat them believe them to be literally true 3. the stories are set in the recent past and associated with some nearby geographical location 4. the stories are almost always completely false Aspects of Culture- Cultural Variation • men and women have different roles across different cultures • what is classified as deviant behaviour in one culture is normative behaviour in another Is Globalization reducing cultural variation? • McDonaldization is a term used by sociologist George Ritzer in his book The McDonaldization of Society (1993). He explains it occurs when a culture possesses the characteristics of a fast-food restaurant. McDonaldization is a reconceptualization of rationalization, or moving from traditional to rational modes of thought, and scientific management. Where Max Weber used the model of the bureaucracy to represent the direction of this changing society, Ritzer sees the fast-food restaurant as having become a more representative contemporary paradigm (Ritzer, 2004:553). In contemporary society, the concept of McDonaldization is gaining attention in different aspects such as culture. McDonaldization thesis in cultural version is a comparatively recent idea of the world wide homogenization of cultures.[1] The process of McDonaldization can be summarized as the way in which "the principles of the fast- food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as of the rest of the world."[2] Canadians and Americans: Are we the same or different? • Seymour Martin Lipset stated that Canadian culture is very different from American culture • Lispet said that these cultural differences explained other differences such as Canada has more respect for authority and therefore that is why we have a lower crime rate • Criticism of Lipset •they suggest that Lipset’s account of history is flawed •they point out that if we take Quebecers and ppl living in the American South out of the analysis, most surveys find no significant differences between Canadians and Americans on things such as individualism and respect for authority •
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