what is sociology?
- Sociology use the systematic study of human behavior.
- Structure and dynamics of society. And their connections to patterns of human behavior
and individual life changes.
- It examines the ways in which the forms of social structure - groups, organization,
communities social categories ( such as class,sex,age,rece) and various social institutions.
(such as kinship,economic,political,or religious) affect human attitudes, actions, and
- Sociology clariﬁes(认清） the scope （范围）,direction and signiﬁcance of social change.
what does sociology involve?
To “do” sociological research usually includes:
▯ 1.An issue to ve researched.
▯ 2.Sociological theory.
3.Research methodology and methods. ( Quantitative, Qualitative)
Importance of social structures.
- Social structure: Relatively stable patterns of social relations.
Three levels of social structure:
1. Microstructures: Patterns of intimate social relations formed during face-to-face
2. Macrostructures: Patterns of social relations outside and above one’s circle of
intimates(密友) and acquaintances(熟⼈人）.
3. Global structures :Patterns of social relations outside nade above national level.
- Micro VS. Macro sociology
Microsociology examines social interaction, human behavior in varied situations. The study
of social interaction, human behavior ia based on individuals interaction of a situation and
the meaning they give it.
Macrosociology looks at the big picture. Societal structure and institutions, position with
social structure( status, roles, institution)and how they inﬂuence human behavior.
Theory Research Values
- Theory: Tentative(假设) explanation of some aspect of social life that state show and why
certain facts are related.
- Research: Process of carefully observing social reality. Often to “test” a theory or assess
- Values: Ideas about what is good and bad right and worry. Values help sociologists
formulate and favour certain theories over others. Auguste Comte(1789-1857)
- Auguste comte, sought to understand the social world using scientiﬁc method of
- Coined the term “SOCIOLOGY”
- Wanted to place the study of society on scientiﬁc foundations(科学基础).
- Origins of sociology based on scientiﬁc methods of research and a vision of ideal society.
- Believed that he had discovered scientiﬁc laws governing the operation of society.
- Theorized that societies evolve in the same way as biological species do.
- Social inequalities(不平等) were necessary in order for societies to evolve.
- spencer’s ideas become know as “social Darwinism” .
Sociology’s Theoretical Traditons
1. Functionalism: how is social order supported by Macrostuctures.
2. Conﬂict Theory: how is social inequality maintained and challenged?
3. Symbolic Interactionism: how do people create meaning when they communicate in
micro level setting.
4. Feminist Theory: what are the social sources of patriarchy in both macro and micro
- stresses that human behavior is governed by stable patterns of social relations.
- shows how social structures can either maintain or undermine social stability.
- Argues that re-establishing equilibrium is the best way to solve most social problems.
- Durkheim’s theory of suicide is an early example of functionalism.
- Sociological perspective can by applied to the causes of suicide.
- Emile Durkheim: At end of 19th century demonstrated suicide rates were strongly