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Chapter 3

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Sociology 1020
Georgios Fthenos

what is society? -there is no single stable definition. -usually “society” is understand to include: 1. the sum of all social interactions within a given territory or area. 2. that social interactions continue over time. 3. that individuals share(at least some). the problems with society -it does not have ‘solid’ boundaries. 1. movement of people. 2. movement of ideas(information, culture) 3. movement of goods(money,re sources) -it does not have a consistent ‘from’. 1. changes in methods of production 2. changes in political/ governmental structures. 3. changes in environment. components fo society -individuals -groups -social interactions -social institutions 1. BRLR: “relatively stable patterns of social relations.” 2. Macrostructures 3. Microstructures sociological perspectives: functionalism -BRLR: “social structures govern our conduct and values and are shared by members of society.” 1.trouble arises when there relations fall out of equilibrium. -people: Durkheim sociological perspectives: conflict theory -BRLR: “society consist in marco-level inequality.” 1. inequality produces social stability in particular circumstances. 2. but causes social change in other circumstances. -people: Karl Marx and Max Weber sociological perspectives: symbolic interactionism -BRLR: “micro-level interactions where individuals both construct and convey meanings.” 1. social constructionism. 2. ethnomethodology(名族⽅方法学) (deep culturel references) -people: Gorge Herbert Mead and Erving Goffman sociological perspectives: feminist theory -BRLR: “patriarchy is not a natural occurrence, but rests on relations of power and tradition. 1. not an argument for a “reversal” of this relationship. 2. feminism argues for the equality between men and women. what does sociology give us? -BRLR: “a compass to navigate society” -but sociology can also be understood as a moving map. 1. sociology outlines details expands the social relations that constitute social interactions. 2. content and context may change, but types of interactions are enduring. sociology as a discipline (学科) -common rebukes(指责) to sociology is that it: 1. has no “object” to examine.(compare to economic, polotics,math ) 2. that is has no “method” .(there is no one way of doing sociology) 3. there are not weaknesses, they are strengths. - few other areas have as much scope and diversity in object and topic as sociology. - the multiple research methods allow a diversity of research to take place, sometimes into the very same object. Chapter 3 CULTURE: the sum of practices, languages, symbols, beliefs, values, ideologies and material objects that people crate to deal with real-life problems. although cultures vary, they all have four common components: 1. symbols (including language) 2. values 3. norms 4. material objects symbols and language - symbols --- anything that carries within a particular meaning recognized by people who share that. - culture --- symbolic meaning may vary within a single society. - language --- a wholly symbolic system enabling highly complex communication. - cultural transmission --- the process by which one generation passes culture to the next, every society partly transmit culture through speech. values - values --- shared ideals about what is desirable or undesirable. - individual are most likely to abide(持续) by them if they accept their validity. - values are “abstract” standards of goodness. beliefs - its a specific ideas upon which people place a high level of certainty. - beliefs are particular matters that individuals consider true or false. norms - norms --- rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members. 1. relatively rules for permitted and prohibited conduct. 2. can be written or unwritten and enforced though various sanctions. - most important norms apply everywhere, at all time. 1. folkways(社会⻛风俗) --- express social preferences, do not evoke(much) social condemnation when violated.(当违反了不会受到太多的社会谴责) 2. mores(习惯) --- express social requirement and have greater social significance, violation provokes reaction. 3. taboos --- express social absolutes and have the greatest significance, violation leads to severer social sanction and punishment. material culture - material culture -- items, physical st
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