net work groups bureaucracies and societies
how social groups shape our actions
1. norms of solidarity demand conformity(⼀一致，相似).
2. structures of authority tend to render people obedient. (⼈人服从与权威)
3. bureaucracies are highly effective structures of authority.
1.norms of solidarity demand conformity
- when we form relationships, we develop shared ides or norms of solidarity about how
should behave to sustain relationships. (⼀一样理念的⼈人才会存在团结的关系)
- emotional importance of these relationships may lead to norms of solidarity overriding
morality of our actions.
2.structures of authority
- structure of authority tend to render people obedient.
- most ﬁnd it difﬁcult to disobey authorities because they fear ridicule, ostracism and
punishment. (嘲笑 排斥 责罚)
3.social distance and authority
- the Milgram Experiment demonstrates how social distance in creases obedience to
- Milgram’s famous experiment on authority where subjects administered what they believe
to be painful shocks on person because of someone in authority told them they had to.
- social network: a bounded set of individuals who are linked by exchange of material or
- patterns of exchange determine boundaries of the network.
- members exchange resources more frequently with one anther with non-members.
social networks and ﬁnding job
- Granovetter found that ﬁnding a job, weak tie (with acquaintances, such as people you
meet at party and friends’ friend)are more important that strong ties (to people who are
close to you such as family members and friends).
- acquaintances are more likely to be connected to diverse networks and provide useful
- we view big cities as cold and more alienating(疏远) than small towns.
- however, research shows that far from living in an impersonal and alienating world, those
people in urban cities have live are network- rich.
dyad and triad
- the difference between a dyad and triad may seem small.
- however, the social dynamics(社会动态) of the two elementary network from are
- social groups: are composed of one or more networks of people who identify with one
anther and adhere to deﬁned norms, roles and statuses.
- are distinct from social categories, people who share similar statuses but do not typically
share norms and identify with one another. primary groups and secondary groups
- groups in which norms roles and statuses are agreed upon but not put in writing.