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Chapter 2

Introduction to Sociology - Chapter 2

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Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 1020
Professor
Kim Luton
Semester
Fall

Description
Introduction to Sociology Chapter 2 - Research Methods 3 October 2011 - sociologits argue that questions about divorce, and social life in general, require a research project of some sort Quantitative and Qualitative Methods: - Durkleim adpoted a position called positivism, which is a method of concluding research - positivism: when a sociologist wants to use the research methods of the natural science (also known as quanititative) - counting and precise measurement of objective behaviour, a limited, number of variables, and predictions are hallmarks of a quantitative approach - Weber believed that human behaviour is unique and more complex because of the subjective meanings and motivations attached to it - humans make choices based on these meanisn, making any discussion of gender, parenthood, and work more involved than describied - qualitative methods had to be developed, today it is called participant observation - when you imagine yourself in their shoes i) A quantitaive option: Survey Research: - most common - asking questions (written or oral) a) Theories and Hypotheses: - theory refers to a basic approach to subjects matter - a variable to sociologists is something that takes on different values within different groups - if there is a relationship between to variables, then they go together - from these theories a testable hypothesis (an educated guess) can logically be denied - it conists of an idependent (cause) and dependent (effect) variable - axiomatic logic: If A > B and B > C, then A > C - making connecting links between related theorectial statements - deductive logic: the derivation of a specific statement from a set of more general statements b) Model: - tey are built by combining two or more statements to fill in or extend the explanation chain c) Measurements: - probably the most difficult task survey researches perform - involves transforming the theoretical language of the hypothesis into the operational language of measurement Operational Defintions: - the actual procedures used to measure theoretical concepts - they are what researches look for or listen to in order to measure their variables - validity: the degree to which they actually measure what they chaim to measure, always in constructing operational defintions - reliability: mrasures of a variable should be consistent and not fluctuate over time or with the person using them d) Sampling: - selecting a subset of individuals form the population they wish to study - the sample should be representative of the population from which it is drawn - conclusions should be generalized beyond the group from which ths sample id drawn -simpler, it means that if reseachers fail to sample from some groups, they can't say their findins hold for them - it represents the population, "a look a like" - in random sample. participates are selected purely by chance - cluster sampling: a series of random samples taken in units of decreasing size, such as a cenus tracts, then streets, then houses, then residents - they both produce generalization to the population - a major goal for researchers - quota sampling: a selection of people that matches the sample to the population on the basic of centain sele
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