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Chapter 2

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Sociology 2240E
Charles Levine

Chapter 2 Theorizing After the RevolutionFrench RevolutionoPredicted on the idea that social harmony and order were tied for the freedom of the rational individual oGave much rise to anarchy oBlame the lack of education Auguste Come Developed a theory of the good society built around the idea of subjecting society itself to scientific scrutinyProduce order and progressSociety could be described by scientific knowledge of social laws ClaudeHenri Comte de SaintSimon 17601825Lived during time of profound upheaval which has an effect on his ideas Young man who joined the army fighting for the American war of independence Participated in revolutionary activities lost several fortunes in land speculationsWas a financerthen a philosopher and prophetSaint Simons Central Theories and Methodsnot just a theorist a socialist Critical point in societyScience would replace religion Social science would become positive by being reduced to physics The ultimate goal of any science symbolized by the Newtonian law of gravitation which represented the unity of knowledge in its more perfect Deductive a priori form Theorized that the study using physiological concepts because it is an organic phenomenon undergoing growth and development like a living thingbDevelopment is in the direction of increasing rationality and scientific knowledge Comte often gets the credit SaintSimon believed that a truly logical system of knowledge specifically mathematics could be applied to the natural and social sciences alike Sought a universal concept similar to the law of gravitation that would unify the social sciencesNature of Society Humans and ChangeIndustrial society result of culmination of social change since the feudal eraSociety became ridged and inflexible prior to the revolutions would be restored to an organic state through science and industry Believed all social change was the result of the development of human knowledge and beliefs Science replaced religion and metaphysical knowledge of the previous era Focus on organic changeHuman sciences have to be contrasted in imitation of the other natural sciences for man is only one part of natureSocieties progress though stagesoPolytheistic primitive stageoTheological feudal stageoModern stage of science and industrialBelieved Western society was entering the third stage oBelieved it was futile to way to restore medieval society oEmphasis on systematic unity ethical basis for society was necessary oDeveloped what he called a new Christianity
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