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Western University
Visual Arts History
Visual Arts History 1040
Christine Sprengler

CHAPTER NINETEEN Italy and Spain 16001700 Italy Art historians call the seventeenth century Italy and Spain Baroque a term that probably derived from the Portuguese word for an irregularly shaped pearl in contrast to the precision and orderly rationality of Italian Renaissance classicism Baroque art and architecture are dynamic theatrical and highly ornateBaroque architects emphatically rejected the classical style Francesco Borromini emphasized sculptural qualities of buildings the facades of his churches for example San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane are not flat front pieces but undulating surfaces that provide a fluid transition from exterior to interior space the interiors of these buildings pulsate with energy and feature complex domes that grow organically from curving walls The greatest Italian Baroque sculptor was Gianlorenzo Bernini who was also an important architect in Ecstasy of Saint Teresa he marshalled the full capabilities of architecture sculpture and painting to create an intensely emotional experience for worshipers consistent with the Catholic CounterReformation principle of using art works to inspire devotion and piety In painting Caravaggio broke new ground by employing stark and dramatic contrasts of light and dark tenebrism and by setting religious scenes in everyday locales filled with rough looking common people an early masterpiece Calling of Saint Matthew for example takes place in an ordinary tavern Caravaggios c
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