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Visual Arts History
Visual Arts History 1040
Christine Sprengler

CHAPTER TWENTY Northern Europe 16001700 Flanders thIn the 17 century Flanders remained Catholic and under Spanish control Flemish Baroque art is more closely tied to the Baroque art of Italy than is the art of the rest of Northern Europe The leading Flemish painter of this era was Peter Paul Rubens whose work and influence were international in scope a diplomat as well as an artist he counted kings and queens among his patrons and friends his paintings of the career of Marie de Medici exhibit Baroque splendour in colour and ornament and feature his characteristic robust and foreshortened figures in swirling motionDutch Republic The Dutch Republic received official recognition of its independence from Spain in the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648 worldwide trade and banking brought prosperity to its predominantly Protestant citizenry which largely rejected church art in favour of private commissions of portraits genre scenes landscapes and still lifes Frans Hals produced innovative portraits of middleclass patrons in which lively informality replaced the formulaic patterns of traditional portraiture Aelbert Cuyp and Jacob van Ruisdael specialised in landscapes depicting specific places and not idealized Renaissance settings Pieter Claesz Willem Kalf and others painted vanitas still lifes featuring meticulous depictions of worldly goods and reminders of death Rembrandt van Rijn thegreatest Dutch artist of the age treated a broad range of subjects including religious themes and portraits his oil paintings are notable for their dyna
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