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Visual Arts History
Visual Arts History 1040
Christine Sprengler

CHAPTER TWENTY ONE Europe and America 17001800 Rococo thIn the early 18 century the centralized and grandiose palace based culture of Baroque France gave way to the much more intimate Rococo culture based in the town houses of Paris there aristocrats and intellectuals gathered for witty conversation in salons featuring delicate colours sinuous lines gilded mirrors elegant furniture and small painting and sculptures The leading Rococo painter was Antoine Watteau whose usually small canvases feature light colours and elegant figures in ornate costumes moving gracefully through lush landscapes his fete galante paintings depict the outdoor amusements of French high society Watteaus successors included Francois Boucher and JeanHonore Fragonard who carried on the Rococo style late thinto the 18 century in Italy Giambattista Tiepolo adapted the Rococo manner to huge ceiling frescos in the Baroque traditionThe Enlightenment thBy the end of the 18 century revolutions had overthrown the monarchy in France and achieved independence for the British colonies in America a major factor was the enlightenment which brought around a new way of thinking critically about the world independently of religion and tradition The Enlightenment promoted scientific questioning of all assertions and embraced the doctrine of progress the thfirst modern encyclopaedias appeared during the 18 century the industrial revolution began in England in the 1740s engineers and architects developed new building materials iron was first used in bridge construction at Coalbrookedale England in 1776 The Enlightenment also made knowledge of ancient Rome imperative for the cultured elite and Europeans and Americans in large undertook a Grand Tour of Italy among the most popular souvenirs were Antonio Canalettos vedute of Venice rendered in precise Renaissance perspective with the aid of a camera obscuraRejecting the idea of progress Ro
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