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Visual Arts History
Visual Arts History 1040
Christine Sprengler

CHAPTER TWENTY THREE Europe and America 18701900 Impressionism A hostile critic applied the term Impressionism to the paintings of Claude Monet because of their sketchy quality the Impressionists Monet PierreAuguste Renoir Edgar Degas and others strove to capture fleeting moments and transient effects of light and climate on canvas Monet for example repeatedly painted Rouen Cathedral at different times of day The Impressionists also focused on recording the contemporary urban scene in Paris they frequently painted bars dance halls the ballet wide boulevards and railroad stations Complimenting the Impressionists sketchy seemingly spontaneous brush strokes are the compositions of their paintings reflecting the influence of Japanese prints and photography Impressionist works often have arbitrary but off figures and settings seen at sharply oblique anglesPost Impressionism thPost Impressionism is not a unified style the term refers to a group of late 19 century artists who followed the impressionists and took painting in new directions Georges Seurat refined the impressionist approach to colour and light into pointillism which is the disciplined application of pure colour in tiny daubes that become recognizable forms only when seen from a distance Vincent van Gogh explored the capabilities of colours and distorted forms to express emotions as in his dramatic depiction of the sky in Starry Night Paul Gauguin another admirer of Japanese prints moved away from impressionism in favour of large areas of flat colour bounded by firm lines Paul Cezanne replaced the transitory visual effects of the impressionists with a rigorous analysis of the lines planes
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