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Week 1 Notes.docx

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Tristan Long

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WEEK 1 Cultural Anthropology: Chapter 1: The Nature of Anthropology Anthropology - is the study of human kind in all times and places - deals with human nature - have ought to expose the fallacies of racial and cultural superiority and their devotion to study all ppl. Everywhere - Globalization is forcing us to deal with issues and challenges – understand other cultures - Anthropology has much to say about human destiny  Anthropologists seek to produce reliable knowledge about people + their behavior, about what makes them different and what they all share in common  Biological Anthropologists: trace evolutionary development of humans as biological organisms +investigate biological variations within species. -also study same as above but not with only humans (apes, monkeys)  Archaeologists: seek to explain human behavior by looking at past through objects (material culture)  Linguistic Anthropologists: study the way language is used as resource to practice/develop/transmit culture Sociocultural Anthropologists: are concerned with contemporary human cultures as they have been observed, Experienced and discussed with actual ppl whose culture they are trying to learn Anthropologists conduct field work to investigate: Biological/Archaeologists: conduct excavations of sites where evidence of human activity has been found Linguistic Anthropologists: study how ppl. Use language to relate to each other, and live with ppl. Whose Language their trying to study Sociocultural Anthropologists: immerse themselves in contemporary culture by living with them, participating in their lives DEVELOPMENT OF ANTRHOPOLOGY - Reason why it took so long to develop anthropology field - lack of technology, geographically restricted because you couldn’t travel to learn new cultures - communication/literate ppl./technology allowed the field to develop - another reason is b/c European explorers failed to see that beneath all the differences in diff. ppl., they Shared basic humanity with all. Labeled others as barbarian or savage - cultural arrogance due to colonialism Colonialism: when one nation dominates another through occupation (colonies), administration (military), resources control, thereby creating dependency. - places like India, African areas suffered under administration under Euro gov.  Cultural Imperialism: Promoting one’s nation’s values, beliefs and behavior as superior to those of all others. Western cthntries often think this way Age of Englightment: in late 18 cent. Euros changed views + accepted other cultures and wanted to learn about them THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANTRHOPOLOGICAL THOUGHT Cultural progress: all cultures go through evolutionary stages till they reach advancement of western societies Edward Tyler/Louis Henry Morgan: suggested to actually observe cultures and not do “armchair” anthro Franz Boas: most famous empiricist argued all cultures are unique and none are superior. Rejected racism and accepted cultural relativism  Cultural Relativism: accepting other cultures, all cultures equal - technology is a cultural mover, CANADIAN ANTRHOPOLOGY 3 major influences in development of Canadian Anthropology: 1. Museums 2. Academic Dpts 3. Applied Research - National Museum of Ottawa played huge role in development, anthropologists in museum conducted ethnographic, linguistic, and archaeological research into Aboriginal cultures Thomas F. McIlwraith: appointed lecturer in Anthropology at UofT - after great work, FIRST anthro dpt. in uni created in 1936 - after second world war, more were created Applied Research: in Canada, strongly helped aboriginals with land claims, health, community wellbeing, self gov A NOTE ABOUT TERMINOLOGY -Europeans often gave derogatory names to first nations Ex: eskimos- in Cree language = eaters of raw meat, he laces snowshoes In Canada, now we use: metis, Inuit, first nations In U.S, they use Native American, Indian, and Amerindian Ex: ju’hoansi (cultural group, Kalahari desert in Africa) people used to be called bushman, or called kung! But ju’hoansi best means genuine people CANADIAN ANTRHOPOLOGISTS Diamond Jenness: went on a ship called Karluk in Arctic ice, and it was trapped in ice. So, he went to an Innuit settlement and worked there, and learned more about them. Almost died there, and now gained great interest in learning about the arctic survival skills and intuits Davidson Black: learned Ojibwa as a young man Discovered new member of homo rectus, peking man. Cast irreplaceable fossils Marius Barbeau: pioneer in Cad. Anthro, helped in first nations efforts, known as founder of Canadian folklore studies, praised for efforts to record voices of people and understand their world view, Prix David, publications show diversity of anthro, work influenced young students Regna Darnell: focused on First Nations THE DISCIPLINE OF ANTHROPOLOGY Anthropological perspective consists of both science and one of humanities, has essential skills to offer to the modern world BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: study of humans as biological organisms Includes:  Paleoanthropology: study of fossil remains of our ancient ancestors in order to reconstruct course of human Evolution Primatology: study of biological and social nature of our closest relatives – monkeys, apes Forensic Anthropology: relatively new field of applied biological anthro and archeology that specializes in human remains for legal purposes - biological anthropologists study how we differ in skin, colour, etc. also interested in human condition. Ex: looking at menopause in North America and Japan ARCHEOLOGY: study of material in past to reconstruct lives of people in past - In ancient Greece, archeology means study of ancient things - evacuate sites where evidence of cultural activity is - look for tools, pottery from past Prehistoric Archaeologists: can learn about human behavior from the past , further than 5000 years historian can - in Canada, we say precontact, because prehistoric makes it seem like first nations in can. Didn’t have a history Historical Archaeologist: study cultures where historic documents available in order to supplement the material remains people left behind. - but studying only written records aint right b/c more higher people associated with written records, so looking at items itself can tell a lot about a culture However, archeologists NOT only concerned with material LINGUISTIC ANTRHOPOLOGY Language: allows us to preserve and transmit culture from generation to generation. No other animal has developed such a complex system of communication like humans Philology: study of language BUT Linguistic Anthropology: study of HUMAN languages and how people use language to relate to one another and how they transmit culture -used as a resource to practice, develop and transmit culture - examine how people use language and other means of expression to develop relationship and maintain social distinctiveness Descriptive Linguists: deal with description of language (how sentence is formed or verb conjugated) Historical Linguists: study the history of languages (how languages develop + influence in time) sociolinguistics: study of language in its social setting and how people perceive themselves +world around them -Linguistic Anthropologists make contribution in understanding human past. Linguistics include working out genological relationship in languages and examining distributions of languages SOCIOCULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY examines contemporary or recent cultures focusing on human behavior, Unlike sociocultural anthropologists, sociologists mainly study western/euro countries Culture Bound: theories about world and reality based on assumptions of ones values and culture -sociocultural anthropologists understand the characteristics of diverse groups, ways in which social, religion, political, and economic organizations influence each other Ethnography: collecting descriptive material on a specific culture ethnographer: go into field to observe and describe human behaviour Ethnology: is the comparative study of patterns witnessed in cultures, attempt to develop generalizations/rules to explain human behavior ethnologist: conduct comparative studies of particular facets of a culture Ethnohistory: a method of studying cultures of recent past using oral histories: archeological sites, accounts of explorers, missionaries, and trades, and archival documents ETHNOGRAPHIC FIELD WORK Participant Observation: method of learning another culture through direct observation and participation in their everyday lives Method figured out by Franz boas Culture Shock: difficulties anthropologist have in adapting to a new culture different from their own Anthropologist CANNOT be biased in their research Holistic Perspective: A fundamental principle of anthropology that the various parts of culture must be viewed in the broadest context to understand interconnection and interdependence Key informants/Respondents: members of a culture who help ethnographer interpret what he or she observes. anthropologists get assist from them who are members of the culture the
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