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Department
Anthropology
Course
AN101
Professor
Tristan Long
Semester
Winter

Description
Week 7Cultural Anthropology Chapter Eight Family and Household Conformity and Culture Nancy ScheperHughes Mothers Love Death Without WeepingWhat is the family o Human Family a group composed of a married or common law couple with or without children or a lone parent with dependent children o Family can take many forms married common law couple including samesex with children o Specific form that families take is related to social historical and ecological circumstancesWhat is the difference between family and household o Households task oriented residential units within which economic production consumption inheritance childrearing and shelter are organized and implemented o Majority of human cultures households consist of families even though some household members may not be relatives of the familyWhat are some of the problems of family and household organization o Different forms that families take are all accompanied by their own characteristic problems o North American Societysmall relatively independent families o Some are isolated from the aid and support of kin and must fend for themselves o Families including several adults in the same large household must find ways to control tensions that invariably exist among their members th Family from the 14 century Latin designating the members or servants of a householdhas long been regarded as a core social institutionAnthropological interest in family family values a euphemism for twoparent opposite sex legal marriages in which women stays home to raise childrenBut increasing prevalence of blended single parent common law and samesex families is challenge the concept of typical or traditional familyThe Family Defined o Family a married or common law couple with or without children or a lone parent with dependent children May sometimes include nonkin members o Definition of family is always changing family in North America may not be family in NayarIndia o A different definition of family kinship group providing the nurturing socialization of their children natural or adopted o Culture Bound interpretation of other practices and beliefs from the standpoint of ones practice Culture bound interpretation can be biased and unwilling to accept the validity of an alternative phenomena o Consanguine or blood family consists of a woman her dependent offspring and the womans brothers in traditional times the NAYAR MARRIAGE SYSTEM did this NAYAR MARRIAGE SYSTEM men and women marry but do not live in the same household spend lives in the household they grew up in Men commute for sexual activityEconomic cooperation between men and women occurs between sisters and brothers rather than husbands and wives o Conjugal FamilyNuclear Family consists of a married or common law couple can be sameSex with their dependent family o Other forms of Conjugal Familyo Polygynous Family consists of man with multiple wives and their dependent children o Polyandrous family includes multiple husbands of single wife and their dependent children tho Nuclear Familyroots back to Roman Catholic Church imposed in 4 century that prohibited close marriages discouraged adoption and condemned polygyny concubinage divorce and remarriage all which before were acceptableThis prohibition strengthen the conjugal tie between one man and one woman at the expense of consanguine ties ensured large number of people left with no male heirs20 of all couples will have only daughters and another 20 will have no childrenResult was to facilitate the transfer of property from families to the roman church which became largest landowner in most European countries Church gained great control in society due to domestic life heir ship and marriage o Industrialization of Europe and North America caused nuclear family to become more isolated from other kin o One reason is that industrial economies require a mobile labour force people prepared to move where jobs are which is easier without kin o Although families still considered foundation of Canadian life composition of families has changed over past few decades o Statistics Canada identifies three family structures in Canadian society 1 Loneparent families159 2 Common Law families155 3 Married CouplesNuclear Families686 o By 2006 12 of all Canadian families with kids were step families and common law families became fastest growing family structure in Canadian society o 16 of female same sex couples living with children o 3 of male same sex couples living with children o Family as an institution serves same functions crossculturally that of nurturing children and creating a cooperative economic unit the householdOriginal Study Fatherhood among the AKA PYGMIES OF CENTRAL AFRICABest Dads in the WorldLiam Kilmurray o Aka pygmies are a huntergatherer people of western central African republic and northwestern Congo RPC o Call themselves BiAka but also known as Babenzele o Infantsgenerally defined as birth to one year old o Studies suggest Aka fathers spend more time than any other known human culture with their children o Aka fatherhood is renowned throughout Africao As a pygmy people Aka fall into a category much researched by anthropologists and sociologists tho During 6 dynasty in Egypt some 4000 years ago Egyptians referred to the pygmy peoples as dwellers in the land of trees o Ancient Greeks also commented on their existence Homer called them Pygmaean Race o Pygmies also in other places like Australia Thailand Malaysia Indonesia Philippines Papua New Guinea and Brazil
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