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Tristan Long

Week 10 Cultural Anthropology: Chapter Eleven: Political Organization and the Maintenance of Order Conformity and Culture: What is Political Organization? o Political Organization: refers to the means a culture uses to maintain order internally and manage its affairs with other cultures externally o Organization may be relatively centralized and informal, as in bands and tribes or centralized and formal as in chiefdoms and states How is Order Maintained within a culture? o Social controls may be internalized (built into individuals) or externalized through sanctions o Built-in controls rely on deterrent such as personal shame and fear of supernatural punishment o Positive sanctions encouraged approved behavior, negative sanctions discourage disapproved behavior o Negative sanctions formalized and enforced by authorized political body = laws o But cultures don’t just maintain order through only law How is Order Maintained between cultures? o Just as the threatened or actual use of force can maintain order within a culture, it also may manage affairs among bands, lineages, clans or other autonomous political units o Not all cultures rely on force because some do not practice warfare o Such Cultures have views of themselves and their place in the world quite different from those characteristic of centrally organized states How do political systems obtain people’s allegiance? o Political system cannot function without loyalty of those it governs o To a greater or lesser extent, political organizations use religion to legitimize their power o In centralized systems, people give loyalty and cooperation because everyone participates in making decision o Centralized systems rely on force and coercion although these may lessen system’s effectiveness o Legitimacy achieved through consent is the most cost-effective form of rule o ―I am the state‖ – statement that Louis XIV declared absolute rule over France becoming not just kind but its law maker, its court, its judge, its jailer and executioner, and had the seat of all political power in France o Louis XIV took great responsibility and performed each of these functions, did the work of thousands of people o As a political organization, 17 century French state was not much different from those that exist in modern times o All large states require elaborate centralized structure with hierarchies of executives, legislators and judges who initiate, pass and enforce laws that affect largthnumberthof people o Complex centralized political structures are a product of mainly the 17 and 18 centuries o In 1500 Europe was home to around 500 political entities o By 1900, there were about 30 political entities o Map of world changed again dramatically between 1990 and 2010 o Outside the developed world, some cultural groups depend on far less formal organization o In cultures such as HADZABE, flexible and informal kinship systems prevail with leader who lack coercive power o MBUTI : problems such as homicide and theft are perceived as serious family quarrels rather than as affairs affecting the entire community o Between these two polarities of political organization lies a variety, including cultures with chiefs, big men, charismatic leaders, and segmented tribes with multi centric authority systems o Political Organization: refers to the way power is distributed and embedded in a cultural group whether it involves organizing a net hunt of passing legislation, linked to the way power is used to coordinate and regulate behavior so that order is maintained - is an important component of human behavior but we should restrict temptation to restrict our examination to military or police structures – this is neither the only aspect of political organization nor even its most important one - Some form of political organization exists in all human groups Kinds of Political Systems Political System: is the means a human group uses to maintain social order and reduce social disorder - It assumes a variety of forms among the peoples of the world but scholars simplified the complex subject by identifying four basic kinds of political systems: 1.uncentralized bands and tribes, centralized chiefdoms and states -each of these systems designed to meet needs of population living within specific setting Centralized Political Systems o In many non-western cultural groups, marriage and kinship form the principle means of social organization o The economies of these groups are of subsistence type with small populations o Leaders do not have the power to force compliance with the society’s customs or laws but if individual members do not conform, they become the target of scorn and gossip or even be ostracized o Important decisions are made in democratic manner by consensus of adults including women as well as men; dissenting members may decide to act with the majority or they may choose to adopt some other course of actions if willing to risk social consequences o This form of political organization provides flexibility which is an adaptive advantage Band Organization (Uncentralized) o Band: a small group of politically independent through related families and is the least complex form of political organization o Bands found among foragers, hunters and other nomadic groups o Organize themselves into politically autonomous extended-family groups o Will camp together, although they often split into smaller groups for periods to forage for food or visit other relatives o Bands are kin groups, composed of men and or women who are related (or are assumed to be) as well as their spouses and unmarried children o Bands can be characterized as associations of related families who occupy a common territory and who live there together for as long as environmental and subsistence circumstances are favorable o Band is the oldest form of political organization since all humans once were hunters and gatherers o Egalitarian groups where everyone is related and where almost everyone values getting along, the potential for conflict to develop is reduced o Many disputes are settled informally trough gossip, ridicule, direct negotiation, or mediation – for example, among most ABORIGINAL PEOPLES of Canada o For conflict resolution, emphasis placed on community healing rather than punishment o When all else fails, unhappy individuals have the option of joining another band where they have relatives o Decision affecting a band are made with participation of all adult members with emphasis on consensus instead of majority o Consensus: a general agreement among adult members of a group o Leadership is based on ability, and leaders maintain their position only as long as they retain the community’s confidence o They have neither a guaranteed hold on their position nor the power to force people to abide by their decisions o A leader who exceeds what people are willing to accept quickly loses followers o Example of informal band leadership: JU/’HOANSI of KALAHARI DESERT: each band is composed of a group of families who live together, linked through kinship to one another and to the leader, who is usually male but sometimes female o Each band has rights to the territory it occupies and to the resources within it, but two or more bands’ territories may overlap o The leader called the Kxoe or the ―owner‖ is the focal point for the band’s theoretical ownership of the territory o Leader male or female symbolically personifies the rights of band members to ownership o Leader is responsible for planning when and where the group will move when local good resources no longer adequate o When move begins his or her position is symbolically at the head of the line o He or she chooses the site for a new settlement and has the first choice of a sport for this or her own fire o Leader may also play a role in organizing hunting parties, trading expeditions and gift-giving and marriage arrangements o Individual families have a great deal of autonomy in decision making o Leader is not a judge and does not punish other band members o Wrongdoers are judged and regulated by public opinion, which is usually expressed by gossip among band members o An important technique for resolving disputes or avoiding them in the first place is mobility o Those who are unable to get along with others of their group simply ―vote with their feet‖ and move to another group where kinship ties give them entry rights o Similar pattern in NORTH AMERICAN FIRST NATIONS PEOPLE SUCH AS SLAVEY OF NORTHERN AMERICA: traditionally, leaders were chosen from most successful hunters while senior women controlled kinship (marriage and group composition0 o Elders held important positions in the band: they chose leaders and served and served as teachers,, historians, and political advisers o Individuals with special powers provided healing and ritual services and maintained social control over the group o The band members settled their own disputes; for most serious offences, the culprit might be banished from the band o As with JU’HOANSI: decision making based on consensus and anyone unhappy with decision was free to VOTE WITH THEIR FEET o Following 1899 and 1921 treaties, chiefs and band councils were established although not to everyone’s satisfaction o These early slavey chiefs were chosen among the traditional leaders and councilors were leaders of local bands o More recently, leaders have been elected by majority which is at odds with the principles of slavey political and social organization o in the 1960s, when their territories were threatened by megaprojects such as Mackenzie Valley pipeline, slaveys allied themselves with other dene peoples to form the dene nation o Dene nation sough political autonomy and greater control over their traditional lands o Also, slavey communities in the northwest territories formed a regional slavey organization – the deh Cho first nation council o In 1990s the dene challenged federal government’s claim of jurisdiction over their lands Tribal Organization (uncentralized) o Tribe: a group of nominally independent communities occupying a specific region and sharing a common language and culture integrated by some unifying factor o Applied to any group that is not organized into a state o Ex: applied to strongly centralized states such as AZTEC: practice is no more warranted than calling the Chinese people a tribe o Europeans coined the term tribe to label people they regarded as inferior to supposedly civilized Europeans o Anthropologists would say that tribal system involves separate bands or villages integrated by factors like kinship and clans o People are united into communities or age grades or associations that crosscut kinship or territorial boundaries o People who belong to tribes sacrifice a degree of household autonomy to a larger-order group in return for greater security against enemy attacks or starvation o Typically, tribe has an economy based on some form of farming or herding o Since these production methods usually yield more food than those of a foraging band, tribal membership is usually larger than band membership o Bands population densities are usually less than one person per square kilometer but tribal population densities always exceed one person per square kilometer and can be as high as 250 per square kilometer o Each tribe consists of two or more small autonomous local communities which may form alliances with one another for various purposes o As with bands, tribal political organization is informal and temporary o Whenever a situation requiring political integration of all or several groups within the tribe arises – perhaps for defense, or to pool resources in times of scarcity – they join in a cooperative manner o When the issue is resolved, each group returns to its autonomous state o Leadership among tribes is informal o BLACKFOOT: did not think of government as something fixed and all-powerful and leadership was not vested in uncentralized authority, local leader was a man respected for his wisdom and hunting - His advice therefore was sough frequently but he had no formal means of control and could not force any decision on those who asked for his help - Group decisions were made by public consensus although leaders would persuade members - Ways for members to abide by group decision were gossip, criticism, withdrawal of cooperation and belief that antisocial actions caused disease o MELANESAN BIG MAN: men are leaders of localized descent groups or of a territorial group -big man combines a small amount of interest in his tribe’s welfare with a great deal of self- interested cunning and calculation for his own gain - His authority is personal; he doesn’t come to office in any formal sense nor is he elected - His status is the result of acts that raise him above most other tribe members and that attract to him a band of loyal followers o KAPAUU, and the CHIMBU OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA: among kapauku, big man is called the tonowi, or rich one - To achieve this status you must be male, wealthy, generous and eloquent; physical bravery and dealing with the supernatural are two other frequent characteristics of tonowi but not essential - The tonowi functions as the headman of the village unit - kapauku cultures places high value on wealth, so wealthy man is viewed as successful and admirable - Yet the possession of wealth must be coupled with generosity, which in this culture means not gift giving but a willingness to make loans - Wealthy men who refuse to lend money to other villagers will be ostracized, ridiculed and in extreme cases executed by group of warriors - This social pressure ensures that economic wealth is rarely hoarded but instead distributed to entire group - Through the loans he makes, the tonowi acquires his political power - Other villagers comply with his requests because they are in his debt (often without paying interest) and do not want to have to repay their loans - Those who have not yet borrowed from the tonowi may wish to do so in the future, so they too will want to keep his goodwill The Clan (Uncentralized Organization) o In many tribal groups, organizing unit and seta of political authority is the clan o clan: an association of people who believe themselves to share a common ancestry -Within the clan, elders or headmen regulate member’s affairs and represent their clan in relations with other clans -the elders of all the clans may form a council that acts WTIHIN the community and FOR the community in dealing with outsiders - Clan members do not live all together in one community, so clan organization facilitates joint action with members of other communities when necessary - Another form of tribal kinship bond that provides political organization is the segmentary lineage system o Segmentary Lineage System: a form of political organization in which a large group is broken up into clans which are further divided into lineages o This system is similar to operation of the clan but less extensive and it is relatively rare o Examples are east African cultures such as SOMALI AND THE DINKA OR NUER OF SUDAN: these people are pastoral nomads who are highly mobile and widely scattered over large territories. Unlike other east African pastoralists (MASSAI) they lack the age-grading organization that cuts across descent group membership o Political organization among segementary lineages is usually informal, although older tribal members may exercise some personal authority o The ethnographic study of Nuer political organization was undertaken before severe disruptions caused by 30 years of civil war in southern Sudan, which recently achieved independence from northern Sudan after voting in favor of it during a referendum. o Among Nuer of southern Sudan (200,000 people) with another 500,00 or so in other parts of Sudan and a smaller population in Ethiopia, at least 20 clans exist -Each is patrilineal and is segmented into maximal lineages; each of these is in turn segmented into major lineages which are segmented into minor lineages which in turn are segmented into minimal lineages -Minimal lineage is a group descended from one great-grandfather or great-great-grandfather -Lineage segments among the Nuer are all equal, no leadership or political organization exists above level of the autonomous minimal or primary segments - Lineage’s superstructure is merely an alliance and becomes active only during conflicts between any of the minimal segments - in serious disputes between members of different minimal lineage segments, members of all other segments take the side of the contestant they are most closely related to; the issue is then addressed between the higher order lineages involved - This system of political organization is called complementary of balanced opposition - Disputes among the Nuer are frequent as they are among other groups with similar organization and under the segmentary lineage system, they can lead to widespread feuds - Any resulting social disruption is minimized by the actions of the ―leopard-skin chief‖ who is not really a chief, but rather a holder of a ritual conciliation office - He can try to persuade feuding lineages to accept payment in ―blood cattle‖ instead of taking another life -His mediation gives each side the chance to back down gracefully before people are killed. - If participations are unwilling to compromise, leopard-skin chief has no authority to enforce a settlement Age-Grade Organization (Uncentralized Authority System) o Age-grade organization: provides a tribe with means of political integration beyond the kin group -under this system, youth are initiated into an age grade and pass from one age grade to another at appropriate ages - Age grades and sets cut across territorial and kin groupings and thus may be important means of political organization - among the TIRKI of EAST AFRICA: the warrior age grade guards the country, while judicial elders resolve disputs -between these two age grades are elder warriors whoa re in a sense understudies to judicial elders Oldest age grade, ritual elders, advise on matters involving the well-being of all TIRKIKI people Thus the tribe’s political affairs are in hands of elders age grades and their officers, while the military affairs are ussually controlled by younger men - among east african pastoralists, those (like the TIRIKI) with crosscutting age-grade organization generally experience less feuding than those with segmentary lineage organization - this is thought to be generally due to the collective authority invested in the elders Voluntary Association Organization (Uncentralized Authority System) o Common-interest associations that function as politically integrative systems within tribes are found in many parts of world – Africa, Melanesia, and India o Example of association organization that existing in 19 century - PLAIN PEOPLES OF CANADA - The basic Cree territorial and political unit was the band, but the men were organized into military societies, or warriors’ clubs - among the Cree- and indeed, the ancient Aztec as well – young man might be invited to join on of these societies when he performed a brave deed, where upon he became familiar with the society’s particular insignia, songs and rituals - in addition to military functions, such as keeping order in camp, and on the hunt, and guarding against enemy attack, warrior societies performed rituals that strengthened group solidarity - Groups still found today – MOHAWK WARRIOR SOCIETY Centralized Political Systems o In bands and tribes, authority in uncentralized and each group is economically and politically autonomous o Political organization is vested in kinship, age and common-interest groups o Populations are small and relatively homogeneous, with people engaged mostly in same sorts of activities throughout their lives o As populations increase, as technology becomes more complex and as trade network and labour specialization produce surpluses of goods, the opportunity for some individuals or groups to exercise control increases. In such groups, political authority and power are concentrated in a single individual – the chief= or in a body of individuals – the state o The state is found in societies where each individual must interact on a regular basis with large numbers of people whose interests are diverse and who are neither kin nor close acquaintances Chiefdoms o Chiefdom: is a regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single ruling individual – the chief- who is at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people o The world-famous monument of Stonehenge is thought to have been built by chiefdom-level society o An individual’s status in such a polity is determined by his or her closeness of relationship to the chief o Those closest receive deferential treatment relative to those in lower ranks o The office of the chief is usually hereditary, passing from a man to his own or his sister’s son depending on whether the descent is reckoned patrilineally or matrillineally o Unlike the leaders of bands, and lineages the chief is generally a true authority figure, and his authority unites his people in all affairs and at all times o Ex: chief can distribute land among community members and recruit people into his military service o SIOUX Indians: have recognized hierarchy consisting of major and minor authorities who control major and minor subdivisions, such an arrangement is a chain of command one thank links leaders at every level o Although chiefs inherit their office, in practice they maintain power through personal abilities and as exemplars of what is almost always seen as a semi sacred position o Chief controls economic activities of his people o chiefdoms are redistributive systems: the chief has control over surplus goods and perhaps even over the community labour force o so he may demand a quota of rice from farmers which he will redistribute to the entire community, he can also recruit labourers to build irrigation works; a palace or temple o chief may amass great amount of personal wealth and pass it on to his heirs o land, cattle and luxury goods produced by specialists may be collected by the chief and become part of his power base o high-ranking families of the chiefdom may engage in the same practice and use their possessions as evidence of status o example of this system: KPELLE OF LIBERIA IN WEST AFRICA: among them is a class of paramount chiefs, each of whom presides over one of the Kpelle chiefdoms (each of which is now a district of the Liberian state) - Paramount chiefs’ traditional tasks include hearing disputes, preserving order, seeing to the upkeep of trails, and maintaining ―medicines.‖ - They are also salaried officials of the Liberian government, mediating between it and their people. - other rewards a paramount chief receives is commission on taxes collected within his chiefdom, commission for labourers furnished for the rubber plantations, a portion of court fees collected, a stipulated amount of rice from each household, and gifts from people who come to request favours and intercessions - In keeping with his exalted station, paramount chief has at his disposal uniformed messengers, a literate clerk, and the symbols of wealth; many wives, embroidered robes, and freedom from manual labour - Beneath each Kpelle paramount chief are several lesser chiefs: one for each district, one for each town, and one for each quarter of all but the smallest towns 0 each acts as a king of lieutenant for his minor chief and also serves as a liaison between him and those of lower tank - Unlike paramount of district chiefs, who are comparatively remote, town, and quarter chiefs are readily accessible to people at the local level - Kpelle political system may be stable today, but chiefdoms in all parts of the world have long been highly unstable in past - This instability is the result of lesser chiefs attempting to wrest power from higher ranking chiefs or of paramount chiefs vying with another for supreme power State Systems (centralized authorities systems) o State: is the most formal of political organizations - In state, political power is centralized in a government which may legitimately use force to regulate the affairs of its citizens as well as relations with other states o Increased food production results in increased population o Together these lead to landscape modifications such as irrigation and terracing o Also lead to carefully managed rotation cycle, intense competition for clearly demarcated lands and rural populations large enough to support market systems and a specialized urban sector o As overcrowding develops and resources become scarcer, corporate groups that stress exclusive membership proliferate, ethnic differentiation and ethnocentrism become more pronounced and the potential for social conflict rises dramatically o An increase in hierarchical authority and a loss of individual freedom and autonomy is the price that humanity had paid for the ability to live together in far greater concentrations o State institutions-bureaucracies, a military, a police force, an official religion and so on have provided the necessary institutions for living together at high densities o Although their guiding ideology purports that they are permanent and stable, states encompass a host of contradictory forces o The fact is that since their first appearance some 5000 to 6000 years ago in the middle east, states have been anything but permanent; over the long term they show a clear tendency toward instability and collapse o Nowhere have states even begun to show the staying power exhibited by more centralized political systems, which are still the longest-lasting social forms invented by humans o An important distinction to make at this point is that between nation and stat o Today there are roughly 192 states recognized by the UN and most did not exist before second war o About 5000 nations exist in the world today o ―What makes each a nation is that its people share a language, culture, territorial base, and political organization and a common history.‖ o Today states commonly have living within their boundaries people of more than one nation o Example: FIRST NATIONS: rarely do state and nation coincide although we do have some examples such as ICELAND AND JAPAN o 73% of the world’s states are multinational -Canada was a region of nations long before Europeans discovered the land -First nations and Inuit peoples covered the vast expanse of this country, albeit sparsely; each nation spoke a distinctive language, had diverse cultural traditions -Each nation occupied a loosely defined territory with a long standing history of occupation and adaption to its particular environment - newly arrived French and English colonist refused to recognise first nations and input and true nations regarding these groups as small nomadic bands with informal leaders who didn’t meet criteria for real nations - Early colonialists applied the construct of ―terra nullius‖ which posited that lands deemed empty of civilization were open for conquest - Today, first nations, Inuit and metis people seeking recognition of their nationhood and their inherent right to self-determination -want to regain control of their affairs and to make own decisions regarding preservation and development of their distinct cultures - self-government would enable aboriginal people more control over affairs within their communities as well as the power to deliver programs and services- such as education, child welfare, and health care- in ways that fit with aboriginal values o Under Section 35 of the Constitution Act (1982), the Canadian government recognized Aboriginal peoples’ right to determine matters related to their culture, identity, traditions, and language; but because each nation is unique, negotiations have to be conducted on a nation-by- nation basis. o Self-government arrangements have already been settled with SECHELT INDIAN BAND IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, THE CREE-NASKAPI OF QUEBEC, AND THE YUKON FIRST NATIONS o METIS groups have also seeked the power to direct and influence decisions that affect their lives but with little success since they aren’t formally recognized as a nation o Inuit groups have taken a slightly different approach, preferring to remain within the sphere of public government o after decades of negotiations, eastern portion of north west territories separated in 1999 to form new territory, Nunavut for Inuit people of Canadian arctic o western forms of political organization are state governments o example: Swazi, a Bantu-speaking people who live in Swaziland in southern Africa - Primarily farmers, but they value cattle rising more highly than farming: The wealth, power, and rituals of their authority system are all intricately linked with cattle. - In addition to farming and cattle raising, certain people have become specialists in rituals, smithing, wood carving and pottery - They trade their goods and services although the Swazi do not have elaborate markets -Swazi authority system is characterized by highly developed dual monarchy, a hereditary aristocracy and elaborate kinship rituals - the king – Mswati III, reigned since 1986, and his mother are by tradition the central figures of all national activity, linking all the people of the Swazi state - They preside over higher courts, summon national gatherings control age classes, allocate land, disburse national wealth, take precedence in ritual and help organize important social events - advising Swazi king are senior princes usually his uncles and half-brothers - Between the kind and princes are two specially created tinsila, or blood brothers who are chosen from certain commoner clans - These men are the king’s shields; they protect him from evildoers and serve him in intimate personal situations - In addition, king is guided by two tindvuna or councillors, one civil and one military - The people of the state make their opinions known through two councils: the liqoqo, or Privy Council, composed of senior princes, and the libanda, or Council of State, composed of chiefs and headmen and open to all adult males of the state. - Theliqoqo may advise the king, make decisions, and carry them out. For example, they may rule on questions about land, education, traditional ritual, court procedure, and transport. - Swazi government extends from the smallest local unit—the homestead—upward to the central administration. - The head of a homestead has legal and administrative powers; he is responsible for the crimes of those under him, controls their property, and speaks for them before his superiors. - On district level, political organization is similar to that of central government - Relationship between a district chief however and his subjects is personal and familiar, he knows all the families in his district - The main check on any autocratic tendencies he may exhibit rests in his subject’s ability to transfer their allegiance to a more responsive chief - Swazi officials hold their positions for life and are dismissed only for treason and witchcraft - Many of these structures of governance survived into the 21 century Political Leadership and Gender o Common belief that women rarely hold positions of political leadership. o Anthropologists and other researchers have found a number of examples of women exercising political power. o Many female politicians presently head or have recently headed governments: Corazon Aquino (Philippines), Benazir Bhutto (Pakistan), Gro Harlem Brundtland (Norway), Indira Gandhi (India), Margaret Thatcher (Great Britain), and Angela Merkel (Germany) o In summer of 2010, Julia Gillard became Australia’s first female prime minister and early 2011, dilma rousseff became first female president of brazil, last monarch of Hawaii was a woman o Queen Elizabeth I of England and Catherine the great of Russia o Many societies where women have as much political power as men o In band societies, it’s common for omen to have as much say in public affairs as men, even though the latter more often than not are the nominal leaders of their groups o IROQUOIAN NATIONS OF SOUTHERN ONTARIO AND New York STATE: leadership positions above the household level were filled by men but those men were beholden to women for the political power they held; only the latter could appoint men to high office. o women actively lobbied the men on councils and could remove someone from office whenever it suited them o low visibility of women in politics doesn’t mean they have been excluded from politics nor does it mean that men have more power in political affairs o IGBO OF NIGERIA: possessed separate political institutions for men and women that provided each sex with its own autonomous sphere of authority, as well as areas of shared responsibility. o At the centre of these respective spheres of authority were a male obi, considered the head of government though in fact he presided over the male community, and a female omu, the acknowledged mother of the whole community but in practice concerned with the female section. o Obi had council of dignitaries to advise him and to act as a check against any arbitrary exercise of power, in the same way the omu was served by council of women in equal number to the obi’s male counsellors o The omu and her councillors established rules and regulations for the community market and heard cases involving women brought to her from throughout the town or village o If such cases involved men then she and her council would cooperate with obi and his council o Widows also went to omu for the finale rites required to end their period of mourning o Since omu represented all women, she had to be responsive to her constituency and would seek their approval and cooperation in all major decisions. o omu and her council, the Igbo women's government included a representative body of women chosen from each quarter or section of the village or town on the basis of their ability to think logically and speak well. o At the village or lineage level were political pressure groups of women who acted to stop quarrels and prevent wars. o they had the right to enforce their decisions and rules by applying sanctions similar to those men employed. These included strikes, boycotts, and ―sitting on a man‖ or woman. o Political Scientists Judith Van Allen describes: To ―sit on‖ or ―make war on‖ a man involved gathering at his compound, sometimes late at night, dancing, singing scurrilous songs which detailed the women's grievances against him and often called his manhood into question, banging on his hut with the pestles women used for pounding yams, and perhaps demolishing his hut or plastering it with mud and roughing him up a bit. - man could be sanctioned for mistreating his wife, violating the women’s market rules or for letting his cows eat the women’s crops -The women would stay at his hut throughout the day, and late into the night if necessary, until he repented and promised to mend his ways -Although this could hardly have been a pleasant experience for the offending man, it was considered legitimate and no man would consider intervening - when the British imposed colonial rule on these people, they failed to recognize the autonomy and power these women possessed. - in their mistaken view, a woman’s mind was not strong enough for masculine subjects like science business and politics; her place was clearly in the home - so it was inconceivable to them that women might play an important role in politics - As a consequence, the British introduced ―reforms‖ that destroyed women's traditional autonomy and power without providing alternative forms - British robbed Igbo women of their equality and made them subordinate to men. - Eleanor Leacock: wrote Myths of Male Dominance: when states impose their control on societies where the sexes are relatively equal to each other, the situation almost invariably changes so that women become subordinate to men Political Order and Maintenance of Order o Whatever form political organization may take, and whatever else it may do, it is always involved in one way or another with maintaining social order o It seeks to ensure that people behave in acceptable ways and always it defines the proper action to take when they do not o In chiefdoms and states, there is some sort of authority that has power to regular affairs of society o In bands and tribes, people generally behave the way they are expected to without the direct intervention of any centralized political authority. They behave due to fear of gossip, criticism, fear of supernatural forces and the like serve as effective deterrents to antisocial behaviour. o WAPE PEOPLE OF PAUA NEW GUINEA: believe that ghosts of dead ancestors roam lineage lands protecting them from trespassers and helping their hunting descendants by driving game their way - t
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