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AN101 (59)
Chapter 4

AN101 - Text Notes Chapters 4, 8 &10-12.pdf

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Victor Gulewitsch

Cultural Anthropology Text Notes Chapters 4 8 1012Chapter4 Language Language and Culture Language the system of arbitrary vocal symbols we use to encode our experiences of the world Linguistics the scientific study of language Anthropological Interest in Language Practical fieldwork research requires oral communication Language involves grammatical and conceptual intricacies that anthropologists can analyze to gain insight into a culture Language and culture closely related everywhere All people use language to encode their experiences to structure their understanding of the world and of themselves and to communicate and engage with one another Language and Context Linguistic Competence coined by linguist Noam Chomsky to refer to the mastery of adult grammar Communicative Competence coined by anthropological linguist Dell Hymes to refer to the mastery of adult rules for socially and culturally appropriate speech Linguistic Relativity Linguistic Relativity Principle the assertion also known as the SpairWhorf hypothesis that language has the power to shape the way people see the world and realityExample A language that has different pronouns for men and women forces its speakers to think of men and women as radically different If language is determined in an absolute way it would be impossible to translate from one language to another however we doEvery language has people with different interpretations Components of Language Grammar a set of rules that aims to describe the patterns of linguistic usage observed by members of a particular speech community Phonology the study of the sounds of language discreet units that come out of our mouthsPhonologists job is to map our how speech sounds are produced and interpreted and to exam individual languages to discover the particular sound combinations they contain and the patterns into which those sound combinations are organized Cultural Anthropology Text Notes Chapters 4 8 1012Morphology the study of minimal units of meaning in a language how we alter or add meanings Morphemes traditionally defined as the smallest meaningbearing units in any language The words they are composed from are the minimal units of meaning in a language representing the fundamental point at which the arbitrary paring of sound and meaning occur Syntax the study of sentence structure the ordering of words morphemes matterbreaking down sentences to get the full meaning and to decipher what is being said Semantics the study of meaningPigPigs PolicePigs Many words have additional meanings besides the ones that they were originally given Metaphor a form of thought and language that asserts a meaningful link between two expressions from different Semitic domains Pragmatics the study of language in the context of how it is used Other factors that determine meaning I just love thatneed to know what is meant Michael Silverstein was one of the fire linguist anthropologists to argue that the referential meaning of certain expressions in language cannot be determined unless we go beyond the boundaries of a sentence and place the expressions in a wider context of use Discourse in speech a meaningful utterance or series of utterances united by a common theme Ethnopragmatics the study of language use in a specific culture grounded in an ethnographic approach with close attention to the relationships between language attention to the relationships between language communication and social interaction grounded in practice or shared knowledge Heteroglossia linguistic knowledge Bakhtin it is the normal condition of linguistic knowledge in any society with internal divisions represents multiple linguistic forms Pidgin Languages Negotiated Meaning Pidgin a language with no native speakers that develops in a single generation between members of communities that posses distinct native languages Trade languages missionaries etc often in a colonial context Ex Samoa Papua new Guinea Caribbean Creoles all pull from different forms of language to communicate Linguistic Inequality and Oppression Colonial contextimposed linguistic motivators EbonicsBlack American English
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