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Wilfrid Laurier University
Mindi Foster

3.5Issac Newton, Gravity, and Orbits Speed: the rate at which an object moves (metres/second) Velocity: speed + Direction Acceleration: the rate of change of velocity with time  speed up – acceleration  slow down - deceleration)  turning(change of direction) Motion of all objects is a result of the forces(pull/push) acting on them 3 Universal Laws : 1. an object remains at rest or at constant velocity unless a net force acts to change its speed/direction 2. If the mass(amount of matter) of the object does not change, then the acceleration is proportional to the force exerted a. m=f/a b. all falling objects on Earth have a constant acceleration downwards toward the centre of the Earth (the acceleration due to gravity, g=9.8m/s^2) 3. Newtonian gravitation/universal mutual gravitation a. forces occur in pairs b. gravity is universal i. all objects with mass attract all other masses in the universe c. mass – measure of the amount of matter or stuff in the object i. kilograms ii. massive = those that contain a lot of matter(may or may not be large) d. mass ≠weight i. mass → an intrinsic property of an object and is the same no matter what forces are acting on an object ii. weight → the force that gravity exerts on the objet iii. ex. an object in space will have no weight, but have mass e. the gravitational force of attraction between 2 objects depends on the product of the masses of the two objects and on the distance between them i. inverse square relation: If the distance from Earth to the Moon were doubled, the gravitational force between them would decrease by 2^2, or 4. ii. the force of gravity attracting 2 objects to each other = a constant times the product of their masses divded by the squared of the distance between the objects F=(GMm)/(d^2) Orbital Motion 1. An object orbiting Earth, and any orbiting object, is actually falling(being accelerated due to gravitational force) toward Earth’s centre. An object in a stable orbit continuously misses Earth because of its horizontal velocity. 2. Objects orbiting each other actually revolve around their mutual centre of mass. 3. the difference between closed orbits and open orbits. If you want to leave Earth never to return,
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