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Chapter 2

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Wilfrid Laurier University
David Smith

Chapter 2: The Cell Eyes contain many small photoreceptor cells. Ocellus is common in a number of insects, arthropods, and molluscs. The Vertebrate eye (human eye) is very similar in structure and function to the eye of certain molluscs (squids and octopi). Light sets the biological clock, but circadian rhythms aren’t a direct result of changes in the light environment. Cell Theory - All organisms are composed of 1 or more cells - The cell is the functional unit of life - Cells only arise from pre-existing cells. Cells were first observed by Robert Hooke in 1600s and by anton van Leeuwenhoek. Hook coined the term cellulae, Van Lee described bacteria and protists as animalcules. Robert Brown first to observe nucleus in 1800s. Mathias Schleden: plants are made of cells and nucleus is important for development. Theodor Schwann: all animals are made up of cells. Rudolf Virchaw: cells only arise from pre-existing cells. Synthetic cells first reported on 2010 Mycoplasma- has one of the smallest genomes. They chemically synthesizes this gene in a lab. They also worked with bacteria that is very similar to mycoplasma. The DNA used was chemically synthesized. They placed this edited genome inside an empty cell and it worked naturally while creating daughter cells in the form of mycoplasma. Typical animal cell: 5 – 30mm Typical bacterial cell: 0.5 – 5mm Micrometers are written an 10 to the -6 which is the light microscopy range. A typical membrane is 7 to 8 nm. Cells are small because of the surface area to volume ratio. Volume determines capacity for chemical activity. Surface area determines amount of transport in and out. Volume increases much faster than surface area Synthetic cells were constructed from chemically-synthesized DNA inserted into “empty” host cell with its DNA. Prokaryotes/ Eukaryotes All forms of life are based on these two distinct types of cells. Prokaryotes: Pro cells lack a nucleus. Pro = before which means they came before Euk cells. Prokaryotes make up 2 of the 3 domains of life: Bacteria and Archaea. Nucleoid is the chromosome and is the only piece of DNA which is basically free floating, it’s a circular molecule. Eukaryotes: included nucleus. Plants, animals fungi algae protozoa Archea looks very similar to Bacteria branch, however it is more evolutionarily similar to Euks. Similarities -plasma membrane - cytoskeleton - ETC - cytosol - DNA organized into chromosomes - Transcription and Translation - Organelles - Basic cellular processes More differences: (All in Euk) -Seperation of DNA and cytosol by nuclear envelope - presence of membrane bound compartments with specialized funtions: Mitochondria, chloroplasts, ER, Golgi - highly specialized motor proteins What do cells of all living organisms have in common? Chromosomes, plasma membrane and Ribosomes. Euk Cells: Have nucleus. Organelles – many are found only in Euk cells like mitochondria Organelles are why Eukaryotes are evolutionarily advanced, however some Pro cells have organelles. Organelles allow for specific chemical pathways that are concentrated and segregated. This concentration allows great efficiency. Segregation is good because it disallows competition between organelles. Nuclear Pore Complex: made up of many proteins - they create pores on nucleus t
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