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Chapter 2

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Wilfrid Laurier University
David Smith

4/16/2013 7:18:00 PM The Cell Cell Theory 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells 2. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms 3. Cells arise from the division of preexisting cells Cells first observed in the 1600’s by ROBERT HOOKE and ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK Hooke coined the term “cellulae” Van Leeuwenhoek described bacteria and protists as “animalcules” 1800’s Robert Brown: first to observe the nucleus Mathias Schleiden: plants are made of cells, and nucleus is important for development Theodor Schwann: all animals are made of cells Rudolf virchrow (Robert remak): cells only arise from preexisting cells The History of the Cell Theory http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4OpBylwH9DU Microscopy Has Been Key most cells are too small to be seen unaided by the human eye typical animal cell: 5-30 micrometer in diameter bacterial cell: approx.. 0.5-5 micrometer in diameter Scale in Biology Scale of Plant, Animal, and Bacterial Cells Scale of Macromolecules Why Aren’t Cells Bigger? Surface area-to-volume ratio Volume determines capacity for chemical activity Surface area determines the amount of transport in and out Types of Microscopy Prokaryotes and Eurkaryotes All forms of life are based on two distinct types of cells: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus “pro” ->before, evolutionarily earlier form of life make up two of the domains of life: Bacteria and Archaea Eukaryotes “eu” -> true, “karyon” -> nucleus plants, animals, fungi, algae, protozoa 3 Domains of Life Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes They both share basic features plasma membrane cytoplasm: cytosol organelles cytoskeleton DNA organized into chromosomes Basic processes: Electron transport chain Transcription and translation Characteristics of Eukaryotic cells are different from Prokaryotic cells Separation of DNA and cytosol by nuclear envelope Presence of membrane-bound compartments with specialized functions: mitochondria, chloroplasts, ER, golgi complex Highly specialized motor proteins Animal cell surface: specialized molecules and structures that function in cell adhesion, communication, and support. Cell adhesion Bind to specific molecules on other cells. Cell junctions Anchoring junctions old cells together Tight junctions prevent ions and molecules from moving between cells Gap junctions open direct channels between cytoplasm of adjacent cells Ribosomes Unifying feature of all cell types Bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic are all slightly different In eukaryotes, some are free in cytosol, others are attached to endoplasmic reticulum membranes Still others are found in mitochondria and chloroplasts Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Extensive interconnected network of membraneous channels and vesicles Rough ER: Ribosome-studded Makes proteins that become part of cell membranes or released (secreted) from cell Smooth ER: Synthesizes lipids and is the site of many other essential cellular functions Endomembrane System Characteristic feature of eukaryotic cells Nuclear en
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