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Chapter 4

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David Smith

Energy is defined as the capacity to do useful workKinetic energy energy in motion Potential energy stored energyEnergy may converted readily from one form to anotherThermodynamicsStudy of energy and its transformations o Energy is 2 types kinetic and potential st 1 law energy can be transformed but not created or destroyed nd 2 law total disorder of a system and its surroundings always increases o Entropy is the measure of disorderIsolatedneither energy nor matter is exchanged thermos Closedenergy is exchanged but matter isnt earth Openboth energy and matter are exchanged organismWhy do we need to eatAverage person consumes 1500 kcaldaySignificant portion of this energy is used to maintain order in our cellsWe eat food to maintain low entropy Thermodynamics in the living cellenergy content and entropy contribute to making a reaction spontaneousspontaneous reactionsoccur without an input of energy from the surroundingsreactions tend to be spontaneous if products have less potential energy than reactants o enthalpy H Potential energy in a systemreactions tend to be spontaneous when products are less ordered than reactants o entropy S Amount or randomness or disorderExergonic reactions are spontaneousPotential Energy of ProductsReactantsEndothermic reactions reactions that absorb energyproducts have more potential energy than reactionsExothermic reactions reactions that release energyproducts have less potential energy than the reactants o Example burning of natural gas methane CH42O2CO22H2OA Spontaneous Endothermic ReactionsHow can melting of ice be a spontaneous reactions if it is endothermicMelting ice increases entropyPhases changes result in an increase in entropyo SolidliquidgasFree Energy GGTTSdeltachangefinal stateinitial state Gchange in free energy Hchange in enthalpy Tabsolute temperature degree kelvin Schange in entropyas a reactions goes to completion it is influenced by two factorschanges in energy content Hchanges in entropy SFor a spontaneous reaction G0
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