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BI111 (118)
Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Textbook notes.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Tristan Long

04232012DefinitionsMicroevolutiona heritable change in the genetics of a populationPopulationPolymorphismthe existence of discrete variations of a characteristicQuantitative Variationindividuals differ in small incremental waysTraits vary continuallyDoes not follow MendelExample Weight or Toe lengthQualitative Variationcharacteristics that exist in two or more discrete states and intermediate forms are often absentFollows Mendelian inheritance patternsHas distinct statesExample Colour of goose feathersGene poolthe sum of all alleles at all gene loci in all individualsGenotype frequencythe percentages of individuals possessing each genotypeAllele frequencythe relative abundance of the different allelesNull modelto predict if a particular factor would have no effectGenetic Equilibriumthe point where there is no allele or genotype frequency change in succeeding generationsDiploidan individual containing homologous chromosomes Haploidan individual containing heterozygous chromosomes Neutral Mutationswhen there is a mutation yet nothing occurs a silent mutationGene flowwhen genes move from one population to another generating diversity through immigration and emigration introduces genetic variationPopulation BottleneckStressful factors kill a great many individuals and eliminated certain alleles from the populationGenetic Driftrandom changes in allele frequencies caused by change events the reduce genetic variationFound effectwhen individuals colonize a distinct location and start a new populationNatural Selectiondifferential survivorship or reproduction of individuals with different genotypes
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