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BI111 (118)
Chapter 29

Chapter 29 Textbook Notes.docx

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Tristan Long

LearningObjectivesChapter2904212012DefinitionsMembrane PotentialAn electrical voltage that measures the charge difference across the plasma membraneWater PotentialThe driving force of energy for osmosisSolute PotentialOsmosis A special case of diffusion where water molecules diffuse across a selectively permeable membrane to an area of higher water concentration to lower water concentrationTonoplastA vacuolar membrane that contains a dilute solution of sugars proteins other organic molecules and saltsGuttationRoot pressure that is strong enough to push water out of the leaf openingsXerophyteA thickened cuticle with a sunken stomata for water storage in stems and modified leavesTranslocationLongdistance transport of substances281Describe the differences between passive and active transport mechanisms as well as long and short distance transport Passive transportSubstances move down a concentration gradient or if it is an ion an electrochemical gradientActive transport requires a source of metabolic energy ATP to move a substance against a concentration gradientExplain how membrane potentials ariseMembrane potentials arise by the diffusion of ions across the plasma membrane resulting in an electron gradient and change in charge from the cytoplasm to the outer environment of the cell
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