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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Modification of Mendelian Genetics.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Robert Boulianne

Chapter 4 Modification of Mendelian RatiosCoat colour in Labrador retrievers will be on final examsome terminologyWild type AlleleAllele that occurs most frequently in populationDesignated asor wtMutant AlleleLoss of Function mutationNull mutation if complete loss of functionGain of Function mutationUsually dominantNeutral mutationNo effectIncomplete dominanceWhen you cross a red and a white you will derive a pink colourOnce you mate those pink flowers with another pink flower you will getredpink andwhite CodominanceThe heterzygote displays both phenotypes if the two homozygotesIncomplete dominance displayed intermediate phenotype between the two homozygoutesABThe ABO Blood group i and i alleles are codominant allelesIndividuals can be AB blood typeHuman MN blood groupMMMNNNLL homozygote LL heterozygote LL homozygoteAnitgens present on surface of RBCsMultiple AllelesSo far we have only considered genes with two allelesOne mutant form and the other wildtype Some genes may have a wildtype form and more than one mutant formThee genes are said to have multiple allelesImportantly for all diploid individuals it is only possible to have two of these alleles present ABO Blood GroupsAn example of multiple alleles is the ABO blood groupDiscovered by Karl Landsteiner in the early 1900sWon 193s Nobel Prize for Physiology or MedicineImportant for the transfusion of blood from one person to anotherImportant to realize that there are other blood compatibility factors as wellThere are four blood group phenotypes
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