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Lecture 1 - Genomes and the Flow of Biological Information.docx

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Steven Deimling

Lecture 1 - Genomes and the Flow of Biological Information Genome: the complete DNA sequence of an organism, which serves as its instructional blueprint. - Some viruses genomes contain RNA Centromere: A region of heterochromatin in each eukaryotic chromosome through which the chromosome becomes attached to the mitotic spindle, allowing daughter chromosomes to segregate correctly at each cell division 1. Living organism must be different from their environment - Have a physical barrier to separate from environment - allows internal of organism to regulate 2. Able to store information in stable way - Have DNA to characterize features, structure and function 3. Must be able to replicate 4. Extract energy from environment to its own use Progenote: Another word for last universal common ancestor (LUCA) Lipids: Constructed from repeated subunits – multiple fatty acids molecules - self-assemble DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): is a type of nucleic acids - composed of 4 building blocks (nucleotides): - guanosine (G), adenosine (A), thymindine (T) and cytidine (C) - Replication = separation (or ‘segregation’) of the copies - DNA polymerase: synthesizes the new DNA copies - highly conserved Gene: Region of DNA that controls the specific hereditary characteristic - This definition is not certain because more studies are done on genome sequencing - Highly compacted DNA is hard to retrieve information from it - Therefore, special mechanisms drive the opening of this tightly wound package for gene expression Plasmid: extra-chromosomal pieces of DNA that also carry important genetic info. - Gene number and genome size does not correlate - The genome size does not correlate to organism size either - Correlation b/n gene # and organism size - Some potential explanations for this conundrum? - Density of gene packaging varies widely across organisms - Transposable elements - Gene Expression: DNA  transcription  RNA  Translation  Proteins (or RNA can have intrinsic functions) RNA polymerase: joins nucleotide monomers together to make RNA strand (example of polymerization reaction) - reads DNA template - knows which nucleotide to add due to physical basis of shape - Initial product of transcription = primary transcript - For some genes, this is the final product and has regulatory function but still go through some downstream processing - Class of RNA is called non-coding RNA Coding RNA: transla
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