MB109 Chapter 8: mb 109 chapter 8

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Business Technology Management
Kris Gerhardt

MB 109 CHAPTER 8: COMMUNICATION & RELATIONAL DYNAMICS Factors that have influenced your choice of relational partners Appearance gets a relationship started; other characteristics keep it alive. People like those who share similar values and outlooks. Some relationships are complementary – a dominant person and a passive one make a good team. People also like competent and talented individuals as well as anyone who likes them (reciprocal attraction). Disclosure builds liking, and relationships form because of continued exposure. Finally, relationships offer physical, mental, and social rewards. Therefore, some relationships are based on social exchange theory Interpersonal relationship – an association in which the parties meet each other’s social needs to a greater or lesser degree/involve the way people deal with one another socially Social exchange theory – this model suggests that we seek out people who can give us tangible or emotional rewards that are greater than or equal to the costs we encounter in dealing with them Knapp’s model describes the nature of communication in the various stages of a relationship Divided into the broad phases of “coming together” and “breaking apart,” Knapp’s model consists of: Coming together • Initiating (making contact) • Experimenting (expressing interest) • Intensifying (having more contact and disclosure) • Integrating (taking on a single identity) • Bonding (denoting the relationship through a symbolic public gesture) Breaking apart • Differentiating (asserting individual values) • Circumscribing (reducing contact and commitment) • Stagnating (losing enthusiasm) • Avoiding (minimizing contact) • Terminating (acknowledging the end of the relationship) Of course, not all relationships terminate Relational maintenance – communication aimed at keeping relationships operating smoothly and satisfactorily (3 area instead of just “coming together” and “coming apart” Initiating – the 1 stage in relational development, in which the parties express interest in one another Uncertainty reduction – the process of getting to know others by gaining more information about them. Once we’ve made contact, the next step is deciding whether we’re interested in pursuing the relationship Experimenting – an early stage in relational development, consisting of a search for common ground. If the experimentation is successful, the relationship will progress to intensifying. If not, it may go no further Intensifying – The parties move towards integration by increasing the amount of contact and the breadth and depth of self-disclosure Integrating – a stage of relational development in which the parties begin to take on a single identity as a social unit – invitations come addressed to the couple Bonding – parties make symbolic public gestures to show that their relationship exists. Bonding is the peak of what Knapp calls the “coming together” phase of relational development (relationships don’t have to be romantic to achieve bonding) Differentiating – parties reestablish their individual identities after having bonded together Circumscribing – parties begin to reduce the scope of their contact and commitment to one another/ communication between members, decreases in quantity and quality, and the stage is characterized by restrictions and restraints (doesn’t involve total avoidance, but interest and commitment being to wane Stagnating – characterized by declining enthusiasm and standardized forms of behavior/ if circumscribing continues, the relationship enters the stagnating stage, where there’s little feeling and no growth Avoiding – immediately prior to terminating, in which the parties minimize contact with one another/ partners create physical distance between each other, either indirectly by using a guise of excuses (I’ve been sick lately) or directly (don’t call me, I don’t want to see you right now) Terminating – characterized by the acknowledgment of one or both parties that the relationship is over/ couples talk about what went wrong and declare that they want to break up The dialectical tensions in a given relationship, how they influence communication, and the most effective strategies for managing them Some hold that relationships may continue because individuals feel with the dialectical tensions (opposing forces) that exist naturally in relationships. The connection-autonomy dialectic can be managed by spending enough time apart to develop independent interests. The openness-privacy dialectic (needing both communication and privacy) is managed by disclosing information about daily affairs but keeping some things private. The predictability novelty dialectic is managed by having some routines but also allowing for novelty in terms of social life, vacations, and so on You must be genuine, and your nonverbal and verbal communication must be congruent. To forgive a transgressor, offer an explicit acceptance of the apology and indicate the implications that the transgression has for the relationship Dialectical tensions – inherent conflicts that arise when two opposing or incompatible forces exist simultaneously. There are 3 types which are: 1. Connection vs autonomy dialectic (independence) – the dialectical tension between a desire for connection and a need for independence in a relationship 2. Openness vs privacy dialectic – the dialectical tension between a desire for open communication and the need for privacy in a relationship 3. Predictability vs novelty dialectic – the dialectical tension between a desire for stability and the need for novelty in a relationship Relational commitment – an implied or explicit promise to remain and make a relationship successful. Providing suppo
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