MB109 Chapter 5: mb 109 chapter 5

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Business Technology Management
Kris Gerhardt

MB 109 CHAPTER 5 EXAM EDITION Language Nature of language • Language is a set of symbols governed by rules and used to convey meaning between individuals • Doesn’t take us long to understand language (1 year old) • Context is critically important to deciphering language, if you don’t know the context, you will get the wrong meaning • Symbolic – words are just symbols, we just figured out what they mean • Rule governed – learning the rules is easy for children, rules are established fluid, have to do with where you live Symbolic • Virtually the only abstract concept before puberty • No inherent meaning – the meaning lies with the receiver, we can only apply rules when we know the meaning ex. In the English language d-o-g is dog • Symbol An arbitrary concept that represents something • More than just speech • More than just a label – labels affect how you perceive things, there is inherent meaning and a context • Labels and names will effect most situations And interpretations ex. Dancer vs DANCER (PG 13) Meanings are inside you • Meanings are inside you….not in the word • Words and physical symbols Change over time; over many factors • Words by themselves have no connection/meaning • Ogden and Richards – triangle of meaning, very indirect relationship between a word and what it’s supposed to mean. Some words have concrete meaning but don’t exist, some do ex. Unicorn and love • Problems arise when we assume people are using the same meaning as we are • Successful communication involves negotiation of word meaning. Make sure the other person understands what you mean. For words you think they might understand, tell them what the word means • Most of the time, communication is successful Rule governed • Language rules • Phonological rules – study of how words sound How words sound when pronounced ex. A farm can produce (make) produce (veggies, fruits). They sound the way they sound because of context • Syntactic rules – the rules of English syntax is different than French syntax The structure of language How symbols can be arranged Vary within a language and between languages Technology has even created a dialect (lol, rofl, AFK, GG) • Pragmatic rules – how language is used in everyday interactions Many levels….many confusing levels Language as power • Used to describe new ideas and things that don’t actually exist but we can describe. Ex. A fake story, a unicorn • Solve problems or make requests • Influences other’s attitudes in how we say something • Knowledge is power, know how to use language is also powerful • Power is used to shape ideas Shaping attitudes • Naming – shapes the way we think of others, how we might act Names are very important – we are influenced by the Sound of a name. if the sound of a name is familiar, we act as though the person is, ‘one of us’, if it was different then they aren’t ‘one of us’ • Credibility – the way you speak, scholarly speech vs. slang speaking style influences perception of speaker With no credibility, there is no leadership Impression management, gain credibility • Status Language the perceptions of status Problem with ESL students and individuals Say big words but use them confidently, will change the way they sound People that can use words properly are viewed as smdart and those who can’t are deemed not smart If you don’t speak fluently, we get the impression that they can’t speak/aren’t smart • Sexism and racism You have to watch the use of labels Reflecting attitudes • Besides reshaping views, it also reflects attitudes • Control over using language • Powerless – giving up power to the other person, use the proper wording. Use I instead of We and take responsibility • Be careful using powerful and powerless language Look at the intent….is it to build a relationship of some kind Con’t Affiliation • Can be used to solidify relationships and show support • Infer membership by use of language • To convince others you are like them, you have to talk like them Attraction and interest • Social customs will influence use • Subtle word play instead of direct statements Responsibility • Can take or defer with the correct use of language • Personalized statements • “BUT” statement, avoid using these Avoid
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