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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Textbook.docx

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Ping Zhang

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Chapter 2 Personality – the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with her or her environment and how they feel, think and behave - dramatic decrease in personality research and a decline in the use of personality tests for selection Interactionist Approach – to predict and understand organizational behaviour, one must know something about an individual’s personality and the setting in which he or she works - there is no one best personality and managers need to appreciate the advantages of employee diversity - the concept of ‘fit’ is putting the right person in the right job, group or organization and exposing different employees to different management styles The Five-Factor Model of Personality 1. Extraversion – the extent to which a person is outgoing vs. shy 2. Emotional Stability/Neuroticism – the degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control 3. Agreeableness – the extent to which a person is friendly and approachable 4. Conscientiousness – the degree to which a person is responsible and achievement oriented 5. Openness to experience – the extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas Extraversion = sociable, talkative vs. withdrawn, shy Emotional Stability = stable, confident vs. depressed, anxious Agreeableness = tolerant, cooperative vs. cold, rude Conscientiousness = dependable, responsible vs. careless, impulsive Openness to Experience = Curious, Original vs. Dull, Unimaginative Other specific personality characteristics that influence organizational behaviour include: Locus of Control - refers to individuals’ beliefs about the location of the factors that control their behaviour - high internals believe that the opportunity to control their own behaviour resides within themselves - the believe that their work behaviour will influence the rewards they achieve - they are more satisfied with their jobs, earn more money and have higher organizational positions - the opposite believe that external forces determine their behaviour Self Monitoring - the extent to which people observe and regulate how their appear and behave in social settings and relationships - high self monitors exhibit good communication skills and persuasive abilities - tend to show concern for socially appropriate behaviour and regulate their behaviour - low self-monitors ‘wear their heart on their sleeves’ Self-Esteem - degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation - people with low self-esteem tend to seek social approval and tend to react badly to negative feedback Behavioural Plasticity Theory - people with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those with high self-esteems Recent Developments in Personality and Organizational Behaviour 1. Positive and Negative Affectivity - people with positive affectivity experience positive emotions and moods and view the world in a positive light, including themselves and other people - people with negative affectivity view the world in a negative light, view themselves negatively, and tend to be distressed, depressed and unhappy 2. Proactive Personality - taking initiative to improve one’s current circumstances or creating new ones - involves challenging the status quo rather than passively adapting to present conditions - people with a proactive personality are relatively unconstrained by situational forces and act to change and influence their environment - this leads to work outcomes such as job performance, tolerance for stress, and leadership effectiveness 3. General Self-Efficacy - a general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations - this is a motivational trait - if you have experienced many successes, you likely have a higher GSE 4. Core Self-Evaluations - refers to a broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth| - people with a positive self-regard are more likely to perceive their jobs as interesting, significant, and autonomous Learning – occurs when practice or experience leads to a relatively permanent change in behaviour potential Practical Skills – job-specific skills, knowledge, and technical competence Intrapersonal Skills – problem solving, critical thinking, risk taking Interpersonal Skills – communicating, teamwork, conflict resolution Cultural Awareness – learning social norms of organizations, understanding company goals, business operations, and company expectations and priorities Operant Learning – learning by which the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences (ie. Rats figuring out how to use food level) Reinforcement – the process by which stimuli strengthen behaviours Positive Reinforcement – the application or addition of a stimulus that increases
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