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Chapter 1

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Ping Zhang

Chapter 1 Organizations – social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort The field of organizational behaviour is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively. Organizational Behaviour – refers to the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations Goals of organizational behaviour include predicting, explaining and managing behaviour that occurs in organizations. Management – getting things accomplished in organizations - managers acquire, allocate, and utilize physical and human resources to accomplish goals Classical View - occurred in the early 1900s - tended to advocate a very high degree of specialization of labour and a very high degree of coordination - each department was to tend to its own affairs with centralized decision making from upper management - to manage control, managers had fairly few workers to look over Scientific Management - written instructions that clearly defined work procedures - supervisors standardize workers’ movements and breaks for maximum efficiency Bureaucracy - strict chain of command in which each member reports to only a single supervisor - promotion based on technical skills rather than favouritism - set of detailed rules and procedures ensuring that the job gets done regardless of who the worker is - the use of strict specialization to match duties with technical competence - the centralization of power at the top of the organization Human Relations Movement - advocated more people-oriented styles of management that catered more to the social and psychological needs of employees - saw that strict specialization is incompatible with human needs for growth/achievement - realized that strong centralization and reliance on formal authority failed to take advantage of creative ideas of lower-level members - members will adopt minimum acceptable level of performance under the old strict rules - strong specialization causes employees to lose sight of the overall goals of the organization Contemporary Management – The Contingency Approach - there are many different situations and variables involved in managing different groups of people - management recognizes in this approach that there is no one best way to manage - an appropriate style depends on the demands of the situation Managerial Activities - Routine communication - sending and receiving of information (meetings and paperwork) - Traditional management - planning, decision making, and controlling are the primary types of traditional management - Networking - interacting with people outside of the organization and informal socializing with insiders - Human resource management - motivating and reinforcing, disciplining and punishing, managing conflict, staffing and training International Managers - the technical requirements for accomplishing goals are actually the same across cultures - it is only the behavioural requirements that are different Management practices of the best companies to work for: - flexible work schedules - stock options - extensive training and development programs - family assistance programs - on-site fitness facilities, daycare, and wellness programs -
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