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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Textbook.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Ping Zhang

Chapter 8: Social Behaviour and Organizational Processes Informational Dependence – Reliance on others for information about how to think, feel and act Effect Dependence – Reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment - the group frequently has a vested interest in how individual members think and act since such matters can affect the goal attainment of the group - the member frequently desires the approval of the group Ex. Reward Cooperative behaviour with praise, friendship and a helping hand on the job Lack of Cooperation may result in nagging, harassment, name calling, or social isolation Motives for Social Conformity 1. Compliance – conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment - the individual complies their behaviour to the norms but doesn’t truly subscribe to the beliefs/values - young children behave themselves only because of external forces 2. Identification - conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself - if someone is basically similar to you, you will be motivated to rely on that person for information on how to think and act - as children get older, they may be motivated to behave themselves since the behaviour corresponds to that of an admired parent with whom they are beginning to identify 3. Internalization - conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm - conformity is due to internal factors rather than external - military officer might come to support the strict discipline of the military since it seems proper/right Socialization – The process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization Person-Job Fit – The match between an employee’s knowledge, skills, and abilities and the requirements of a job Person-Organization Fit – The match between an employee’s personal values and the values of an organization Organizational Identification – The extent to which an individual defines him or herself in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent Socialization is important because it has a direct effect on proximal socialization outcomes (learning, P-J fit, and P-O fit) which lead to more positive distal outcomes (organizational identification etc.). Stages of Socialization 1. Anticipatory Socialization - occurs before a person becomes a member of a particular organization - may be formal; acquiring skills and attitudes by attending college/university - may be informal such as that acquired through summer jobs or by watching movies 2. Encounter - new recruit encounters the day-to-day reality of this organizational life - formal aspects include orientation programs and rotation through parts of the organization - informal aspects include getting to know and understand the style/personality of boss/coworkers 3. Role Management - attention shifts to fine tuning and managing their role in the organization - may require forming connections outside the immediate work group Unrealistic Expectations - people entering organizations hold many expectations that are inaccurate and unrealistically high - once they enter an organization they experience a reality shock and their expectations aren’t met Psychological Contract – Beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their organization Psychological Contract Breach – Employee perceptions that their organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its promises or obligations of the psychological contract - often results in anger and betray and can have a negative effect on employee’s work attitudes/behaviour since they feel violated and that they cannot fully trust management - it is important that newcomers develop accurate perceptions in the formation of a psychological contract - organizations must ensure that truthful and accurate information about promises and obligations is communicated to new members before and after they join an organization Organizations differ in terms of who does the socializing, how it is done, and how much is done. Methods of Organizational Socialization 1. Realistic Job Previews – the provision of balanced, realistic picture of the positive and negative aspects of a job to applicants - organizations generally obtain the views of experienced employees and HR staff about the positive and negative aspects of the job and incorporate these views into booklets/video presentations for applicants 2. Employee Orientation Programs - programs designed to introduce new employees to their job, the people they will be working with, and the organization - generally consists of health/safety issues, terms and condition of employment and information about the organization (history and traditions) - also begins to form the psychological contract and to teach new employees how to deal with stress 3. Socialization Tactics - the manner in which organizations structure the early work experiences of newcomers and individuals who are in transition from one role to another a) Collective vs. Individual Tactics - the collective tactic involves a number of new members are socialized as a group, going through the same experiences and facing the same challenges (army boot camps etc.) - the individual tactic consists of socialization experiences that are tailor-made for each new member such as simple on-the-job training and apprenticeship to develop skills b) Formal vs. Informal Tactics - formal tactics involve segregating newcomers from regular organization members and providing them with formal learning experiences - informal tactics don’t distinguish a newcomer from more experienced members c) Sequential vs. Random Tactics - these have to do with whether there is a clear sequence of steps during the socialization process - with sequential tactics, there is a fixed sequence of st
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