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Chapter 10

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Ping Zhang

Chapter 10: Communication Communication – The process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver Effective Communication – Communication whereby the right people receive the right information in a timely manner Chain of Command – Lines of authority and formal reporting relationships Downward Communication – Information that flows from the top of the organization to the bottom Upward Communication – Information that flows from the bottom of the organization to the top Horizontal Communication – Information that flows between departments or functional units, usually as a means of coordinating effort Deficiencies in Chain of Command 1. Informal Communication 2. Filtering – The tendency for a message to be watered down or stopped during transmission - on the other hand employees are supposed to filter information - upward filtering – occurs since employees are afraid their boss will use the information against them - downward filtering – occurs due to time pressures or lack of attention to detail - a manager could make another employee who is competing for a promotion look bad at a meeting by filtering information - an open door policy is an opportunity for employees to communicate directly with a manager without going through the chain of command 3. Slowness Barriers to Effective Manager-Employee Communication 1. Conflicting Role Demands - Managers have trouble balancing the two role demands (task and social-emotional functions) 2. Mum Effect – The tendency to avoid communicating unfavourable news to others Grapevine – An organization’s informal communication network - info can be communicated by mouth, notes, emails, fax messages etc. -organizations often have several grapevines (office grapevine and warehouse grapevine) - can transmit information relevant to the performance o the organization as well as personal gossip - can keep employees informed about important organizational matters (ex. job security) - however, can be a problem when it becomes a constant pipeline for rumours Rumour – An unverified belief that is in general circulation Jargon – Specialized language used by job holders or members or particular occupations or organizations Non-Verbal Communication – The transmission of messages by some medium other than speech or writing - body language, manipulation of objects are forms of non-verbal communication Body Language – Non-verbal communication by means of a sender’s bodily motions, facial expressions, or physical location - facial expressions/bodily motions Senders communicate liking and interest in the receiver when they: - position themselves close to the receiver - touch the receiver - maintain eye contact - lead forward Props, Artifacts and Costumes are also used as non-verbal communication: - they way people decorate/arrange their offices can make people feel more welcome and comfortable - family photos, calendars, awards/diplomas, flashy artifacts, messy office etc. are all examples are office decor that have different distinctiveness categorizations of people Differences in Males and Female Communication Styles 1. Getting credit – men are more likely to blow their own horn about something good they have done 2. Confidence and boasting – men tend to be more boastful about themselves and their capabilities 3. Asking questions – men are less likely than women to ask questions because they feel it puts them in a one-down position 4. Apologies – women will often apologize more (men see it as weakness) 5. Feedback – women will often buffer criticism and men will be more blunt/straightforward 6. Compliments – women are more likely to provide compliments 7. Ritual opposition – men will attack others’ points of views more; women see this as a personal attack 8. Managing up and down – women believe that to be recognized, what matters most is doing a good job but what also matters is who you communicate with and what you discuss; men talk more with their superiors and about their achievements 9. Indirectness – women in authority tend to be more indirect when giving orders (can lead t misunderstandings and be perceived as a lack of appropriate confidence) Differences in communication styles between men and women usually reflect negatively on women and place them in a one-down position. Being able to use different c
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