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Ping Zhang (73)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Textbook.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Ping Zhang

Chapter 12: Power and Politics Power – The capacity to influence others who are in a state of dependence Legitimate Power – Power derived from a person’s position or job in an organization - the higher up the organization’s hierarchy, the more legitimate power the members possess Reward Power – Power derived from the ability to provide positive outcomes and prevent negative outcomes - managers can recommend raises, do performance evaluations, and assign preferred tasks Coercive Power – Power derived from the use of punishment and threat - managers may be able to dock pay, assign unfavourable tasks, or block promotions Referent Power – Power derived from being well liked by others Expert Power – Power derived from having special information or expertise that is valued by an organization Employee Responses to Bases of Power How Do People Obtain Power? 1) Doing the Right Things a) Extraordinary Activities – excellent performance in unusual or non-routine activities (taking risks) b) Visible Activities – people must know about what the people are doing c) Relevant Activities – people must care about what the people are doing 2) Cultivating the Right People a) Outsiders – establishing good relationships with key people outside one’s organization b) Subordinates – cultivating subordinate interests can provide power when a manager can show that they are backed up by a cohesive team c) Peers - ensuring nothing gets in the way of one’s future acquisition of power d) Superiors – liaisons with key superiors (mentors or sponsors showing interest in promising subordinate (useful to be identified as a protégé of someone higher in organization) Empowerment – Giving people the authority, opportunity, and motivation to take initiative and solve organizational problems - people who are empowered have a strong sense of self-efficacy (feel they are capable of doing their job well Relationship Between Power and Performance Influence Tactics – Tactics that are used to convert power into actual influence over others - Assertiveness – ordering, nagging, setting deadlines - Ingratiation – using flattery and acting friendly, polite, or humble - Rationality – using logic, reason, planning and compromise - Exchange – doing favours or offering to trade favours - Upward Appeal – making formal or informal appeals - Coalition Formation – seeking united support from other organizational members - McClelland argues that the most effective managers have a high need for power, use their power to achieve organizational goals, adopt a participative/”coaching” leadership style, and are relatively unconcerned with how much others like them Subunit Power – The degree of power held by various organizational subunits, such as departments Strategic Contingencies – Critical factors affecting organizational effectiveness that are controlled by a key subunit Conditions Where Subunits Can Control Strategic Contingencies 1) Scarcity - differences in subunit power are likely to be magnified when resources become scarce -
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