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Chapter 13

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Ping Zhang

Chapter 13: Conflict and Stress Interpersonal Conflict – The process that occurs when one person, group or organizational subunit frustrates the goal attainment of another Causes of Organizational Conflict 1) Group Identification and Intergroup Bias - people tend to develop a more positive view of their own “in-group” and a less positive view of the “out-group” 2) Interdependence - when individuals/subunits are mutually dependent on each other to accomplish their own goals - sales staff is dependent on the production department for the timely delivery of high quality products 3) Differences in Power, Status, and Culture - Conflict can occur when parties differ significantly in power, status or culture - Power – if dependence is one way and not mutual, chances of conflict increase - Status – conflict can occur when lower status people are giving orders to high status people - Culture – when two or more very different cultures develop, there is a clash in beliefs and values 4) Ambiguity - ambiguous goals, jurisdictions, or performance criteria can lead to conflict 5) Scarce Resources - limited budget money, secretarial support, or lab space can contribute to conflict Types of Conflict 1) Relationship Conflict – interpersonal tensions among individuals that have to do with their relationship per se, not the task at hand 2) Task Conflict – Disagreements about the nature of the work to be done 3) Process Conflict – Disagreements about how work should be organized and accomplished\ When conflict begins, we tend to see the following: - “winning” the conflict becomes more important than developing a good solution to the problem - parties begin to hide information from each other - each side becomes more unified; strict conformity is expected - contact with the opposite party is discouraged - opposite party is negatively stereotyped and image of one’s own position is boosted - more aggressive people who are skilled at engaging in conflict may emerge as leaders Modes of Managing Conflict 1) Avoiding – A conflict management style characterized by low assertiveness of one’s own interests and low cooperation with the other party; hiding the head in the sand” response 2) Accommodating – A conflict management style in which one cooperates with the other party while not asserting one’s own interests 3) Competing – A conflict management style that maximizes assertiveness and minimizes cooperation 4) Compromise – A conflict management style that combines intermediate levels of assertiveness and cooperation 5) Collaborating – A conflict management style that maximizes both assertiveness and cooperation *Assertiveness – confidently aggressive Stress in Organizations Stressors – Environmental events of conditions that have the potential to induce stress - ex. extreme heat/cold, isolation, hostile people Stress - A psychological reaction to the demands inherent in a stressor that has the potential to make a person feel tense or anxious since the person doesn’t feel capable of coping with these demands Stress Reactions – The behavioural, psychological, and physiological consequences of stress - Ex. elevated blood pressure, coping attempts with some previous aspect of the stress episode Locus of Control – A set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces; externals believe that their behaviour is controlled by luck, fate etc. Type A Behaviour Pattern – A personality pattern that includes aggressiveness, ambitiousness, competitiveness, hostility, impatience, and a sense of time urgency Negative Affectivity – Propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a negative light Executive and Managerial Stressors Role Overload – The requirement for too many tasks to be performed in too short a time period Heavy Responsibility Operative-Level Stressors Poor Physical Working Conditions Poor Job Design Boundary Role Stressors, Burnout, and Emotional Labour Boundary Roles – Positions in which organizational members are required to interact with members of other organizations or with the public Burnout – A syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced self-efficacy Work Engagement – A positive work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption Job Demands-Resources Model – A model that specifies how job demands cause burnout and job resources cause engagement Some General Stressors 1) Interpersonal Conflict -Bullying – Repeated negative behaviour directed toward one or more individuals of lower power or status that creates a hostile work environment 2) Work-Family Conflict – either work duties interfere with family life or family life interferes with work 3) Job Insecurity and Change – threatened employment, mergers and acquisitions 4) Role Ambiguity – lack of direction can prove stressful 5) Sexual Harassment Behavioural Reactions to Stress The following are used to cope with stress: 1) Problem Solving 2) Seeking Social Support – support from other people; family/friends 3) Performance Changes – stressors can stimulate or dama
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