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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Textbook.docx

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Department
Business
Course
BU288
Professor
Jennifer Komar
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 7: Groups and Teamwork Group – Two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal Formal Work Groups – Groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals (manager and employees, task forces, committees) Informal Groups – Groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members Typical Stages of Group Development: 1) Forming – what are we doing here, what is our purpose – situation is often ambiguous 2) Storming – conflict often emerges – criticism, sorting out roles, problems likely to happen 3) Norming – members resolve issues, develop consensus and compromise, info/opinions flow freely 4) Performing – task accomplishment, achievement, creativity 5) Adjourning – emotional support for each other, monitoring how groups are developing Punctuated Equilibrium – A model of group development that describes how groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions Phase 1 – first meeting, sets agenda for what will happen in remainder of phase - gathers information but makes little progress toward the goal Midpoint Transition – halfway point in time toward the group’s deadline - need to move forward is apparent, may seek outside advice Phase 2 – decision and approaches adopted at midpoint get played out in this phase - concludes with final meeting - must prepare carefully for first meeting since what is decided here will strongly determine what happens in the rest of phase 1 - if you are the adviser of the group, stress motivation and excitement - if people are working, do not look for radical progress during Phase 1 - manage the midpoint transition carefully – evaluate strengths/weaknesses of peoples’ ideas – essential issues are not likely to “work themselves out” in phase 2 - make sure adequate resources are available to execute phase 2 plan - resist deadline changes or it could damage the midpoint transition - at the midpoint, there can be either a successful or unsuccessful transition of group performance Group Size - the smallest group is 2 people, however 300-400 members is somewhere close to the limit - most work groups have 3-20 members - members of larger groups report less satisfaction (friendships, less verbal communication) - the performance of the group with respect to the size depends on the task at hand Additive Tasks – Tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual group members Disjunctive Tasks – Tasks in which group performance is dependent on the performance of the best group member Process Losses – Group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups – ex. 50 carpenters trying to build a house Conjunctive Tasks – Tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member (assembly line is limited by its weakest link) Norms – Collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each other – codes of conduct of what individuals should and shouldn’t do Some typical norms include dress norms, reward allocation norms, and performance norms. Many norms apply to all group members to be sure that they engage in similar behaviours. Roles – Positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them There are two basic types of roles in organizations. Assigned roles and emergent roles. Emergent roles are ones that develop naturally to meet needs of group members (“old pros” helping newer members) Role Ambiguity – The goals of one`s job or the methods of performing it are unclear Role Conflict – An individual is faced with incompatible role expectations Intrasender Role Conflict – A single role sender provides incompatible role expectations of an occupant Intersender Role Conflict – Two or more role senders provide a role occupant with incompatible expectations Interrole Conflict – Several roles held by a role occupant involves incompatible expectations Person-Role Conflict – Role demands call for behaviour that is incompatible with the personality or skills of a role occupant Status – The rank, social position, or prestige according to group members All organizations have both formal and informal status systems. Formal status system represents management’s attempt to publicly identify those people who have higher status than others. The identification is implemented by status symbols such as titles, pay packages, work schedules etc. For informal status systems, the basis can be job performance. Some examples are “power hitters” on a baseball team, “fa
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