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Chapter 2

chapter 2

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Mamdouh Shoukri

Chapter 2 Lo2.1 Define personality and discuss its general role in influencing organizational behaviour. Personality – the relatively stable (same even the time flies) set of psychological characteristics that distinguish one person from another. Personality influences the way an individual interacts with her or her environment and how they feel, think and behave. Personality consists of a number of dimensions and traits that are determined in a complex way by genetic predisposition and by one’s long-term learning history (experiment). Lo2.2 Describe the dispositional, situational, and interactionist approaches to organizational behaviour and trait activation theory The dispositional approach – behaviour is driven by individual dispositions and personality. Individuals are predisposed to behave in certain ways based on their personality The situational approach – behaviour is driven by characteristics of the organizational setting (e.g., rewards and punishment) The interactionist approach – behaviour is driven by both dispositions and the situation (i.e., personality and work setting together). This is the most widely accepted approach to organizational behaviour. To predict and understand organizational behaviour, one must know something about an individual’s personality and the setting in which he or she works Situational strength • Strong situation: clearly defined roles, strong behavioural norms, high predictability by limiting the number of behavioural patterns that are appropriate (personality is less influential) • Weak situation: loosely defined roles and rules, few external constrains on individuals (personality has strongest effect in weak situation) Trait activation theory Traits lead to certain behaviours only when the situation makes the need for the trait salient. There is no one best personality and managers need to appreciate the advantages of employee diversity. The concept of ‘fit’ is putting the right person in the right job, group or organization and exposing different employees to different management styles Lo2.3 Discuss the Five-Factor Model of personality The Five-Factor Model of Personality: structure replicates across many cultures 1. Extraversion – the extent to which a person is outgoing vs. shy 2. Emotional Stability/Neuroticism – the degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control 3. Agreeableness – the extent to which a person is friendly and approachable 4. Conscientiousness – the degree to which a person is responsible and achievement oriented 5. Openness to experience – the extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas FFM and OB Best predictors of job performance depends on the occupation • Job performance and organizational citizenship behaviour. o C – important for most jobs, strongest predictors of overall job performance across all occupations o O – jobs involving learning and creativity o A – jobs requiring cooperative interactions o E & N – good predictors of overall job performance, especially influential in social interactions • Other work behaviours o Conscientiousness is related to retention and attendance at work and is also an important antidote for work withdrawal and counterproductive behaviours. Extraversion has also been found to be related to absenteeism; extraverts tend to be absent more often than introverts. • Work motivation and job satisfaction o N & C–strongest predictor of motivation. Emotional stability > C > E >A (O not included) o Higher N related to lower job and life satisfaction. Higher C, E, A were associated with higher job satisfaction. • Job search and career success • Similar relationships found between C and OcBs, CWB; as well as N and all measures of performance Lo2.4: Describe and discuss the consequences of locus of control, self-monitoring, and self-esteem. Locus of Control: a set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external factors • Refers to individuals’ beliefs about the location of the factors that control their behaviour • Internal locus believe that the opportunity to control their own behaviour resides within themselves o The believe that their work behaviour will influence the rewards they achieve o They have higher satisfaction, more successful career, less stress, better coping, and more careful career planning • External locus believe that external forces determine their behaviour Self-Monitoring: The extent to which people observe and regulate how their appear and behave in social settings and relationships • High self-monitors exhibit good communication skills and persuasive abilities Take great care to observe and control the images that they project. Show concern for socially appropriate behaviour and social cues. Regulate their behaviour and self-presentation according to social cues. Gravitate to jobs that require role-playing and the use of their self-presentation skills o More involved in jobs o Perform better o More likely to emerge as leaders o Better regulation o More role stress o Lower commitment to organization o Do not feel comfortable in ambiguous settings o Not good at dealing with uncertainty • Low self-monitors Self-Esteem • Degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation • Self-esteem and OB o Reaction to negative feedback o Resiliency to strains o Vulnerability to external influences o Job satisfaction o Job performance o Career decisions • Behavioural Plasticity Theory o People with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those with high self-esteems, they are more pliable o Events and people in the organizational environment have more impact on the beliefs and actions of employees with low self-esteem. o Low self-esteem seeks social approval from others. They do not react well to ambiguous and stressful situation. Another example of the interactionist approach. Work environment on people belies and actions are partly a function of their self-esteem. Tend to react badly to negative feedback o Modelling the correct behaviour should be especially effective with low self- esteem employees, who are quite willing to imitate credible models and who are respond well to mentoring. o Avoid to assign jobs that inherently provide a lot of negative feedback. Lo2.5: discuss positive and negative affectivity, proactive personality, general self-efficacy, and core self-evaluations and their consequences Recent Developments in Personality and Organizational Behaviour 1. Positive and Negative Affectivity (genetic and biological based) • People with positive affectivity experience positive emotions and moods and view the world in a positive light, including themselves and other people. Key factors that links happiness to success in life and at work. • People with negative affectivity view the world in a negative light, view themselves negatively, and tend to be distressed, depressed and unhappy. Associated with counterproductive work behaviours, withdrawal behaviours and occupational injury. 2. Proactive Personality • A stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take initiative across a range of situations to effect positive change in one’s environment • Involves challenging the status quo rather than passively adapting to present conditions • People with a proactive personality are relatively unconstrained by situational forces and act to change and influence their environment • Proactive personality and OB o Job performance o Tolerance for stress o Leadership effectiveness o Participation in organizational initiatives o Work tem performance o Entrepreneurship o Career success 3. General Self-Efficacy • A general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations • A motivational trait rather than an affective trait because it reflects an individual’s belief that he or she can succeed at a variety of tasks rather than how an individual feels about him or herself. • Self-efficacy and OB o Individuals with higher GSE are better able to adapt to novel, uncertain, and adverse situations. o Employees with higher GSE have higher job satisfaction and job performance this is a motivational trait • Positive and negative affectivity o Relates to the emotions people generally experience  Seeing the world through rose coloured glasses o Positive affectivity and negative affectivity are emotional dispositions that predict people’s general emotional tendencies. o PA/NA and OB  Job attitude  Job performance  Counterproductive and withdrawal behaviours  Stress and strain  Creativity 4. Core Self-Evaluations • Refers to a broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth, competence, and capabilit
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