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Chapter 4

chapter 4

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Mamdouh Shoukri

Chapter 4 Values – a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others Preference aspect – values have to do with what we consider good and bad Broad tendency – values are very general and do not predict behaviour in specific situations well Four Generations in Today’s Workplace 1. Traditionalists (1922-1945) – 8% - hardworking, stable, loyal 2. Baby Boomers (1946-1964) – 44% - team perspective, experienced, knowledgeable 3. Generation X (1965-1980) – 34% - independent, adaptable, creative 4. Millennials (1981-2000) – 14% - optimistic, able to multitask, technologically savvy Work Centrality - work is valued differently across cultures - in Japan, work goes late through the night which contrasts to Canada Hofstede’s Study Hofstede found that 4 basic dimensions along which work-related values differed across cultures: 1) Power Distance - the extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members - in small power distance cultures, inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible, and power differences are downplayed 2) Uncertainty Avoidance - the extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations - strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules, hard work, conformity and security 3) Masculinity/Femininity - more masculine cultures differentiate gender roles and support dominance of men - more feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, stress sexual equality and quality of life 4) Individualism/Collectivism - individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative and privacy - collective cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to family/clan 5) Long-term/Short-term Orientation (for more Eastern cultures) - cultures with a long-term orientation tend to stress persistence, perseverance etc. - cultures with a short-term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability Attitude – a fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people - more specific than values; can value working but still dislike your job (attitude) Attitudes are a function of what we think and feel BELIEF + VALUE = Attitude  Behaviour “My job is interfering with my family life.(Belief) “ I dislike anything that hurts my family.”(Value) “I dislike my job.” (Attitude) “I’ll search for another job.” (Behaviour) Job Satisfaction - a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs - most relevant attitudes toward jobs are contained in a rather small group of facet: the work itself, compensation, career opportunities, recognition, benefits, working conditions, supervision, co-workers, and organizational policy - overall satisfaction is an average or total of the attitudes individuals hold toward various facets of the job Discrepancy Theory – a theory that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted to the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained - people might differ in their perceptions concerning the nature of the job even if doing the same job - satisfaction with one’s pay is high when there is a small gap between the pay received and the perception of how much pay should be received Fairness Distributive Fairness – fairness that occurs when people receive the outcomes they think they deserve from their jobs - involves the ultimate distribution of work rewards and resources Equity Theory – A theory that job satisfaction stems from a comparison of the inputs one invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group My outcomes = Other’s outcomes My inputs Other’s inputs Inputs – anything that people give up, offer, or trade to their organizations in exchange for outcomes - education, training, seniority Outcomes – factors that an organization distributes to employees in exchange for their inputs - pay, career opportunities Fair Unfair You Friend You Friend C grade A grade C grade A grade 50 hours 100 hours 100 hours 50 hours Procedural Fairness – fairness that occurs when the process used to determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable The following factors contribute to perceptions
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