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Chapter 5

chapter 5

5 Pages

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Mamdouh Shoukri

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Chapter 5: Theories of Work Motivation Motivation – The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal Characteristics: 1) Effort – strength of work-related behaviour 2) Persistence 3) Direction – do workers channel persistent effort in a beneficial direction for the organization 4) Goals – all motivated behaviour has some goal toward which it is directed Intrinsic Motivation – Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; it is usually self-applied - ex. feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge Extrinsic Motivation – Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others - pay, company policies, fringe benefits Self-Determination Theory – A theory of motivation that considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous or controlled Autonomous Motivation – When people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors Controlled Motivation – When people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward Performance – The extent to which an organizational member contributed to achieving the objectives of the organization Two Forms of intelligence that are particularly important for performance are: 1) General Cognitive Ability – A person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources - intelligence and mental abilities - overall capacity and efficiency for processing information including many cognitive abilities such as verbal, numerical, and reasoning abilities 2) Emotional Intelligence – The ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions Four branch model of emotional intelligence: a) Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others b) Using emotions to facilitate thinking c) Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions d) Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals Need Theories – Motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance Needs  Behaviour  Incentives and Goals Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – A 5-level hierarchical need theory of motivation that specifies that the lowest-level unsatisfied need ahs the greatest motivating potential 1. Physiological Needs - essential for survival; food, water, oxygen, shelter 2. Safety Needs - needs for security, stability, safe working conditions, pension and insurance, acceptable pay 3. Belongingness Needs - needs for social interaction, affection, love, companionship, friendship 4. Esteem Needs - needs for feelings of adequacy, competence, independence, strength, confidence, appreciation - examples include job titles, awards, promotions, professional recognition 5. Self-Actualization Needs - desire to develop one’s true potential as an individual to the fullest extent - express one’s skills, talents and emotions in a manner that is most personally fulfilling - ex. absorbing jobs with the potential for creativity and growth ERG Theory – A 3-level hierarchical need theory of motivation (existence, relatedness, growth) that allows for movement up and down the hierarchy 1. Existence Needs - These are needs that are satisfied by some material substance or condition - food, shelter, pay, safe working conditions 2. Relatedness Needs - needs that are satisfied by open communication and the exchange of thought and feelings with other organizational members 3. Growth Needs - needs that are fulfilled by strong personal involvement in the work setting - the full utilization of one’s skills and abilities and the creative development of new skills and abilities - The more lower-level needs are appreciated, the more higher-level need satisfaction is desired - The less higher-level needs are appreciated, the more lower-level needs satisfaction is desired McClelland’s Theory of Needs – A non-hierarchical need theory or motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation 1) Need for Achievement – A strong desire to perform challenging tasks well Characteristics include: - a preference for situation in which per
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