Textbook Notes (363,126)
Canada (158,212)
Business (2,364)
BU288 (264)
N/ A (1)
Chapter 5

OB Midterm 1 & 2 Package - Chapters 5,6,7,11,13

70 Pages
Unlock Document

Wilfrid Laurier University
N/ A

Chapter 5: Theories of Work Motivation WHAT IS MOTIVATION? - No single all-purpose motivation theory - A good set of theories should: o Recognize human diversity and consider that the same conditions will not motivate everyone o Explain how it is that some people seem to be self-motivated, which others seem to require external motivation o Recognize the social aspect of human beings peoples motivation is often affected by how they see others being treated - Motivation: the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal Basic Characteristics of Motivation - Effort - Strength of the persons work-related behavior or amount of effort the person exhibits on the job - Persistence - The persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks - Direction direction of the persons work-related behavior (do workers channel persistent effort in a direction that benefits the organization?) - Goals assume that motivated people act to enhance organizational objectives Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation - Intrinsic Motivation: motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; it is usually self-applied e.g. feelings of achievement, accomplishment, and challenge - Extrinsic Motivation: motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others e.g. pay, fringe benefits, and company policies - Self-Determination Theory: a theory of motivation that considers whether peoples motivation is autonomous or controlled - Autonomous Motivation: when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors (in control of their motivation) - Controlled Motivation: when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward - Extrinsic factors can lead to autonomous motivation when individual internalizes the values or attitudes associated with a behavior and as a result, no longer requires the extrinsic factor to serve as a motivator to perform the behavior - Autonomous motivation facilities effective performance especially on complex tasks - When extrinsic rewards depend on performance, then the motivating potential of intrinsic rewards decreases -> come to believe that performance is controlled b environment and perform well only because of money Motivation and Performance - Performance: the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization - General Cognitive Ability: a persons basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources -> intelligence o Individuals overall capacity and efficiency for processing information and includes cognitive abilities such as verbal, numerical, spatial and reasoning abilities require to perform mental tasks o Predicts learning and training success as well as job performance o Better predictor of performance for more complex and higher-level jobs that require the use of cognitive skills and involve more information processing - Emotional Intelligence: the ability to understand and manage ones own and others feelings and emotions o High EI able to identify and understand the meanings of emotions and to manage and regulate their emotions as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking and action o Four-Branch Model of EI Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others involves ability to perceive emotions and to accurately identify ones own emotions and emotions of other Using emotions to facilitate thinking ability to use and assimilate emotions and emotions experiences to guide and facilitate ones thinking and reasoning Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions understand how different situations and events generate emotions as well as how they and others are influence by various emotions Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals individual is able to regulate, adjust, and change his or her own emotions as well as others emotions to suit the situation - EI found to be most important for job performance of employees with lower levels of cognitive ability and of less importance for the job performance of employees with high levels of cognitive ability The Motivation-Performance Relationship - Possible for performance to be low even when person is highly motivated - Poor performance could also be due to poor understanding of task or luck and chance factors that can damage the performance of the most highly motivated individuals - Individual with rather marginal motivation might have high general cognitive ability or emotional intelligence or might understand the task so well that some compensation little effort is expended very efficiently in terms of goal accomplishment - Weak motivation might perform well because of some luck or change factor that boosts performance NEED THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION - Need Theories: motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance o Concerned with what motivate workers - Needs -> Behavior-> Incentives and Goals - Process theories -> concerned with exactly how various factors motivate people Maslows Hierarchy of Needs 1. Physiological Needs: needs that must be satisfied for person to survive-> minimum pay necessary for survival and working conditions that promote existence 2. Safety Needs: needs for security, stability, freedom from anxiety and a structured and ordered environment -> safe working conditions, fair and sensible rules and regulations, job security, comfortable work environment, pension and insurance plans, and pay above minimum needed for survival 3. Belongingness Needs: needs for social interaction, affection, love, companionship, and friendship -> opportunity to interact with others on the job, friendly and supportive supervision, opportunity for teamwork, and opportunity to develop new social relationships 4. Esteem Needs: needs for feelings of adequacy, competence, independence, strength, and confidence, and the appreciation and recognition of these characteristics by others -> opportunities to master tasks leading to feelings of achievement and responsibility (awards, promotions, prestigious job titles, professional recognitions) 5. Self-Actualization: desire to develop ones true potential as an individual to the fullest extent and to express ones skills, talents, and emotions in a manner that is most personally fulfilling. Individuals have clear perceptions of reality, accept themselves and others, and are independent, creative, and appreciative of the world around them-> absorbing jobs with potential for creativity and growth as well as a relaxation of structure to permit self- development and personal progression - Maslows Hierarchy of Needs: a five level hierarchical need theory of motivation that specifies that the lowest-level unsatisfied need has the greatest motivating potential - Motivation depends on persons position in need hierarchy - When need is unsatisfied, it exerts a powerful effect on the individuals thinking and behavior
More Less

Related notes for BU288

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.