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Chapter 2

Lecture 3 (SHORTER) - Ch. 2. Personality & Learning.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
David Scallen

BU288 Lecture 3 Ch. 2: Personality & Learning Tues. Sept. 18. 2012. • Continuous learning is critical for effective OB & to remain competitive in changing environment • RECALL: OB = attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations OB IS A FUNCTION OF PERSONALITY • Personality: relatively stable (it can change) set of psychological characteristics that affects the way someone interacts with the environment  reflected in how we react to situations/people/issues • Personality traits are determined complexly by genetic predisposition & long-term learning history • Dispositional approach to OB focuses on individual dispositions & personality, and how it affects OB  we are predisposed to behave in certain ways most of the time o Research failed to support the usefulness of personality as a predictor of job performance, due to inadequate measures of personality characteristics. There was a fall in use of personality tests for selection, but advances in measurement and trends in organizations prompted renewed interest. o Increased emphasis on service jobs with customer contact, concern about ethics and integrity, and contemporary interest in teamwork point to the potential contribution of personality. o The development of the Five-Factor Model also renewed interest in personality • Situational approach: focus on factors in work environment that predict/explain OB o Same person acts differently in different situations  not useful to describe using traits o Ex: job satisfaction is largely determined by factors like the characteristics of work tasks • Interactionism: most accepted perspective in OB; OB is a function of both dispositions & situation. To predict & understand OB, one must know about a person’s personality & her work setting. o Weak situations: not clear how to behave (ex: weak reward system) personality has big impact o Strong situations: there are clear expectations for appropriate behaviour o It is useful to describe people using a frequency distribution o There’s no one best personality  managers must appreciate employee diversity o Fit (Person-Organization): key concept of putting the right person in the right job/group Five-Factor Model (FFM) of Personality (Big Five) • Provides a framework for classifying personality characteristics into 5 general dimensions • Researchers identified 1000s of adjectives used to describe people. These traits were analyzed to see how they could be grouped together. Several researchers came up with the same 5 clusters. Extraversion • Extent to which someone is outgoing vs. shy  good for interpersonal jobs • High scores here = sociable, outgoing, energetic, joyful, assertive • Extraverts enjoy social situations, while introverts avoid them Emotional • degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control stability / • high stability (low neuroticism) = self-confident and high self-esteem, calm, Neuroticism secure  likely to have effective interactions with co-workers and customers • high neuroticism = self-doubt, depression, anxious, hostile, impulsive, stressed Agreeablene • extent to which a person is friendly and approachable  good for helping ss jobs 1 BU288 Lecture 3 Ch. 2: Personality & Learning Tues. Sept. 18. 2012. • Agreeable = warm, considerate, altruistic, friendly, sympathetic, cooperative, (vs. cold and aloof, argumentative, inflexible, intolerant, etc.) Conscientio • degree to which a person is responsible & achievement-oriented  all jobs us-ness • good performance in all jobs across occupations, and strongest predictor • conscientious people are dependable and positively motivated, orderly, self- disciplined, hard-working, and achievement-striving (vs. irresponsible, lazy) Openness to • extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is open to new ideas  creative Experience jobs • open people tend toward creativity and innovation (vs. status quo), believe in the importance of art, have a vivid imagination, curious (vs. conservative) • The dimensions are relatively independent  you can be higher/lower in any combination • how the dimensions affect performance depend on the occupation • entrepreneurs (vs. managers) are more conscientious, emotionally stable, open, and less agreeable • The dimensions are related to other work behaviours: performance, turnover, leadership, etc. o conscientiousness leads to better attendance, job attainment, fewer counterproductive behaviours o extraverts tend to be absent more often than introverts o emotional stability & conscientiousness are strongest predictors of motivation (positively related) o Strongest predictor of job/life satisfaction = emotional stability, then conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness.  openness is unrelated to job/life satisfaction o Extraverted, emotionally stable, agreeable, and conscientious people perform better on a team • The Big Five are all positively related to the intensity of a job seeker’s job search and career success • Conscientiousness, extraversion and emotional stability are associated with higher income/status • Both childhood & adult measures predicted career success during adulthood over period of 50 years Locus of Control • Locus of control: beliefs about whether behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces - beliefs about the location of the factors that control their behaviour • High externals: believe that external forces determine their behaviour. Pursuing additional things does not pay off, believes promotions depend on luck & connections, and the world is unfair. • High internals believe they control their own behaviour (and desti
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