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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Theories of Work Motivation.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Marc Hurwitz

CHAPTER5WEEK5CHAPTER5THEORIESOFWORKMOTIVATIONWHAT IS MOTIVATIONBasic Characteristics of Motivation Motivation is the extent to which consistent effort is directed toward a goal Effort The strength of a persons work related behavior or the amount of effort the person exhibits on the jobPersistenceThe second characteristic of motivation is the persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks Direction The quality of a persons work Goals All motivated behavior has some goal or objective toward which it is directed Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation and SelfDetermination Theory Intrinsic motivation stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task and is usually selfapplied Feelings of achievement accomplishment challenge and competence derived from performing ones job are examples of intrinsic motivators as is sheer interest in the job itself Extrinsic motivation stems from the work environment external to the task and is usually applied by someone other than the person being motivated Pay fringe benefits company policies and various forms of supervision The availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic motivation stemming from the task itself The notion is that when extrinsic rewards depend on performance then the motivating potential of intrinsic reward decreases Making extrinsic rewards contingent on performance makes individuals feel less competent and less in control of their own behaviortheir performance is controlled by the environment and that they perform well only because of the moneyTheir intrinsic motivation suffers The negative effect of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation occurs only under very limited conditions and they are easily avoidable Intrinsic and extrinsic factors are used in selfdetermination theory SDT to explain what motivates people and whether motivation is autonomous or controlled They are in control of their motivation or what is known as autonomous motivationwhen people are selfmotivated by intrinsic factors When motivation is autonomous individuals are engaged in a task because they choose to be and their actions are internally regulatedperform a task because they find it interesting or fun to doControlled motivationwhen people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward Individuals feel they have no choice and they have to engage in a task 1TypetextTheir behavior is externally regulateddo something to obtain a desired consequence avoid punishment or because the boss is watching them The distinction between autonomous and controlled motivation is important because autonomous motivation has been shown to facilitate effective performance especially on complex tasks Associated with other work outcomes such as positive work attitudes and psychological wellbeing Motivation and Performance Performance is the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization General Cognitive AbilityA persons basic information processing capacities and cognitive resourcesIt reflects an individuals overall capacity and efficiency for processing information and it includes a number of cognitive abilities such as verbal numerical spatial and reasoning abilities that are required to perform mental tasks Cognitive ability is usually measured by a number of specific aptitude tests that measure these abilities Cognitive ability predicts learning training and career success as well as job performance in all kinds of jobs and occupations including those that involve both manual and mental tasks Thomas WHNg and Daniel CFeldman examined the results of 293 studies on education and job performance Core task performance refers to the basic required duties of a particular jobCitizenship performance refers to those extra behaviors engaged in by employees over and above their core task requirements that actively promote and strengthen an organizations effectiveness Counterproductive performance refers to voluntary behaviors that harm the wellbeing of the organization The result indicates that education was related to all three types of performance More highly educated workers have higher core task performance display greater creativity and demonstrate more citizenship behaviors than less educated workers 2The relationships between education and performance were stronger for men than for women and stronger for Caucasian employees than for racial minoritiesthe relationship between education and core task performance was stronger for more complex job
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