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Chapter 3

Chapter 3- Perception, Attribution and Diversity .docx

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Marc Hurwitz

TextbookNotesChapter31Chapter 3 Perception Attribution and DiversityWHAT IS PERCEPTION Perception is the process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment Perception helps sort out and organize the complex and varied input received by our senses of sight smell touch taste and hearing The key word in this definition is interpreting Some of the most important perceptions that influence organizational behavior are the perceptions that organizational members have of each other COMPONENTS OF PERCEPTIONIt has three components a perceiver a target that is being received and some situational context in which the perception is occurring The PerceiverThe most important characteristics of the perceiver is experience Past experiences lead the perceiver to develop expectations and these expectations affect current perceptions Our needs unconsciously influence our perceptions by causing us to perceive what we wish to perceiveEmotions such as anger happiness or fear can influence our perceptions Perceptual defense The tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions The TargetPerception involves interpretation and the addition of meaning to the target and ambiguous targets are especially susceptible to interpretation and additionThe perceiver does not or cannot always use all the information provided by the targetThe SituationEvery instance of perception occurs in some situational context and this context can affect that one perceives SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORYSocial identity theory A theory that states that people form perceptions of themselves based on their personal characteristics and memberships in social categories Our sense of self is composed of a personal identity and a social identity Our personal identity is based on our unique personal characteristics such as our interests abilities and traits Social identity is based on our perception that we belong to various social groups such as our gender nationality religion occupation and so on As an individuals we categorize ourselves and others to make sense have and understand the social environmentdepends on what is most salient and appropriate to the situationWe also form perceptions of others based on their memberships in social categories Social identity theory is useful for understanding stereotyping and discrimination A MODEL OF THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS MODELEXAMPLE Unfamiliar target encounteredNew coworker Openness to target cuesObservation search information
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