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Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Organizational Change, Development, and Innovation .docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Marc Hurwitz

CHAPTER 161CHAPTER16ORGANIZATIONALCHANGEDEVELOPMENTANDINNOVATIONTHE CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONAL Why Organizations Must Change External sources and internal sources Environmental changes must be matched by organizational change if the organization is to remain effective Relationships among environmental change organizational change and organizational effectiveness A word should be said about the perception of threat and change Sometimes when threat is perceived organizations unfreeze see below scan the environment for solutions and use the threat as motivation for change Change almost always entails some investment of resourcesrequires some modification of routines and processes If either of these prerequisites is missing inertia will occur What Organizations Can Change Factors that can be change include Goals and StrategiesFrequently change their goals and strategies they use to reach these goals Ex Expansion the introduction of new products pursuit of new marketsTechnologycan be minor to majorIntroduction of online web access is a fairly minor changeMoving from an assembly line to flexible manufacturing is a major changeJob DesignCan redesign individual groups of jobs to offer more or less variety autonomy identitysignificance and feedbackStructureCan be modified from a functional to a product form or vice versaFormalization and centralization can be manipulated as can tallness spans of control and networking 2CHAPTER 16ProcessesThe basic processes by which work is accomplished some stages of a project might be done concurrently or subsequentlyCultureVery critical changing culture helps organizational culture to be strongPeopleActual content on the membership can be changed through a revised hiring process for example Done to introduce new blood or to take advantage of the opportunities from more diverse labour Existing membership can be changed in terms of skills and attitudes by various training and developmental methods A change in one area usually calls for changes in othersChanges in goals strategies technology structure process job design and culture almost always require that organizations give serious attention to people changes The Change ProcessUNFREEZINGThe recognition that some current state of affairs is unsatisfactoryCrises are especially likely to stimulate unfreezing big lawsuit unexpected strike etcCHANGEThe implementation of a program or plan to move the organization or its members to a more satisfactory state Change efforts can range from minor to major REFREEZNGthe condition that exists when newly developed behaviours attitudes or structures become an enduring part of the organizationThe effectiveness of the change can be examined along with the desirability of extending the change further The Learning Organization Organizational LearningThe process through which an organization acquires develops and transfers knowledge throughout the organization Two primary methods of organizational learning1Knowledge Acquisitionacquisition distribution and interpretation of knowledge that already exists but which is external to the organization2Knowledge Developmentdevelopment of new knowledge that occurs in an organization primarily through dialogue and experience Organizational learning occurs when organizational members interact and share experiences and knowledge and through the distribution of new knowledge and information throughout the organization Learning OrganizationAn organization that has systems and processes for creating acquiring and transferring knowledge to modify and change its behaviour to reflect new knowledge and insights Key Dimensions that are Critical for a Learning OrganizationVisionSupportleaders must communicate a clear vision of the organizations strategy and goals in which learning is a critical part and key to organizational successCultureknowledge and information sharing risk taking and experimentation are supported and continuous learning is considered to be a regular part of organizational lifeLearning SystemsDynamicsemployees are challenged to think solve problems make decisions and act according to a systems approachKnowledge ManagementInfrastructureestablish systems and structures to acquire code store and distribute important information and knowledge so that it is available to those who need it
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