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Chapter 2

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Department
Business
Course
BU288
Professor
Ping Zhang
Semester
Fall

Description
BU288 Chapter 2 – Personality and Learning Week 2 What is Personality? -Personality – the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment -A person’s personality summarizes his or her personal style of dealing with the world -Personality consists of a number of dimensions and traits that are determined in a complex ay by genetic predisposition and by one’s long-term earning history Personality and Organizational Behaviour -Personality has a rather long and rocky history in OB. Initially, it was believed that personality was an important factor in many areas of organizational behaviour, including motivation, attitudes, performance, and leadership -The use of personality tests is known as the “dispositional approach” – because it focuses on individual dispositions and personality -According to this approach individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviours -The “situational approach” says that characteristics of the organizational setting, such as rewards and punishment, influence people’s feelings, attitudes, and behaviour -Both approaches are important for predicting and understanding OB -According to the interactionist approach, OB is a function of both dispositions and the situation -The extent to which personality influences people’s attitudes and behaviour depends on the situation -A key concept is fit: putting the right person in the right job, group, or organization, and exposing different employees to different management styles -The Five-Factor model – “Big Five” – provides a framework for classifying personality characteristics into five general dimensions The Five Factor Model of Personality -Over the years, psychologists have discovered that there are about five basic but general dimensions that describe personality 1. Extraversion – the extent to which a person is outgoing versus shy. Persons who score high tend to be sociable, outgoing, energetic, joyful, and assertive 2. Emotional stability/Neuroticism – the degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control. People who score high emotional stability and low neuroticism are self-confident and have high self- esteem 3. Agreeableness – the extent to which a person is friendly and approachable – more agreeable people are warm, considerate, altruistic, friendly, sympathetic, cooperative, and eager to help others 4. Conscientiousness – the degree to which a person is responsible and achievement oriented. More conscientious people are dependable and positively motivated. 5. Openness to experience – the extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas. More open people tend towards creativity and innovation -The give dimensions are relatively independent -The “Big Five” traits have a genetic basis -There is evidence that each of the “Big Five” elements are related to job performance, other work behaviours, work motivation, and job satisfaction, job search, and carer success Locus of Control -Locus of control – a set of beliefs abbot whether one’s behavior is controlled mainly by internal or BU288 Chapter 2 – Personality and Learning Week 2 external forces -This variable refers to individuals’ belief about the location of the factors that control their behaviour -Compared with internals, externals see the world as an unpredictable, chancy place in which luck, fate, or powerful people control their destinies -Internals tend to see stronger links between the effort they put into their jobs and the performance level that they achieve – self initiative, personal actions, free will Self-Monitoring -Self-monitoring - the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships -The people who wear their heart on their sleeve are low self-monitors – they are not so concerned with scoping out and fitting in with those around them -High self-monitors tend to gravitate toward jobs that require a degree of role-playing and the exercise of their self-presentation skills. Ex. Law, sales. Perform well in occupations that call for flexibility, and adaptiveness Self-Esteem -Self-esteem – the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation -People tend to be highly motivated to protect themselves from threats to their self-esteem -Behavioural plasticity theory – people with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self-esteem -Events and people in the organizational environment have more impact on the beliefs and actions of employees with low self-esteem -To bolster self-esteem, organizations can give opportunity to participate in decision making, autonomy, and interesting work Recent Developments in Personality and Organizational Behaviour Positive and Negative Affectivity -Positive affectivity – propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a positive light -Negative affectivity – propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a negative light -These are emotional dispositions that predict people’s general emotional tendencies -They can influence people’s emotions and mod states at work and influence job attitudes and work behaviour -Those high on PA report higher job satisfaction and job performance – they are more productive at work – and vice versa Proactive Personality -Proactive behaviour – taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones -Proactive personality – a stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative cross a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s environment -Proactive personality is a stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s environment -Proactive personality is a stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s environment BU288 Chapter 2 – Personality and Learning Week 2 -Proactive individuals search for and identify opportunities, sow initiative, take action, and persevere until they bring about meaningful change General Self-Efficacy -General self-efficacy – a general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations -It is a motivational trait rather than an affective trait because it reflects an individual’s belief that he or she can succeed at a variety of tasks rather than how an individual feels about him or herself -Employees with higher GSE have higher job satisfaction and job performance Core Self-Evaluations -Core self-evaluations – a broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth -The idea behind it is that individuals hold evaluations about themselves and their self-worth, competence, and capability -These traits are among the best dispositional predictors of job satisfaction and job performance What is Learning? -Learning – a relatively permanent change in behaviour potential that occurs due to practice or experience -Practical skills include job-specific skills, knowledge, and technical competence -Intrapersonal skills are skills such as problem solving, critical thinking, learning about alternative work processes, and risk taking -Interpersonal skills include interactive skills such as communicating, teamwork, and conflict resolution -Cultural awareness involves learning the social norms of organizations and understanding company goals, business operations, and company expectations and their priorities Operant Learning Theory -Operant Learning – learning by which the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences -Developed by being in a lab of rats and learning how to get their food pellets out by pulling the lever over time Increasing the Probability of Behaviour -One of the most important consequences that influences behaviour Is reinforcement -Reinforcement – the process by which stimuli strengthen behaviours -A reinforce is a stimulus that follows some behaviour and increases or maintains the probability of that behaviour -Reinforcement serves to strengthen behaviours Positive Reinforcement -Positive reinforcement – the application or addition of a stimulus that increases or maintains the probability of some behaviour -In general, positive reinforcers tend to be pleasant things such as food, praise, money, or success -Pleasant stimuli are not positive reinforcers when considered in the abstract BU288 Chapter 2 – Personality and Learning
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