Chapter 4 BU288.docx

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Published on 12 Oct 2012
School
WLU
Department
Business
Course
BU288
Professor
BU288 Chapter 4 Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour Week 3
What are Values?
-Values a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others
-The preference aspect of this definition means that values have to do with what we consider good and
bad
-Values are motivational
-The words broad tendency mean that values are very general and that they do not predict behaviour in
specific situations very well
-People tend to hold values structured around such factors as achievement, power, autonomy,
conformity, tradition, and social welfare
-Most values are socially reinforced by parents, teachers, and representatives of religions
Generational Differences in Values
-Many companies are attempting to understand the implications of having our distinctive generations in
the workplace
Generation
Percentages of Workforce
Assets in the Workplace
Leadership Style Preferences
Traditionalists
1922-1945
8%
Hard working, stable, loyal,
thorough, detail-oriented,
focused, emotional maturity
Fair, consistent, clear, direct,
respectful
Baby Boomers
1946-1964
44%
Team perspective, delicated,
experienced, knowledgeable,
service-oriented
Treat as equals, warm and
caring, mission-defined,
democratic approach
Generation X
1965-1980
34%
Independent, adaptable,
creative, techno-literate,
willing to challenge the status
quo
Direct, competent, genuine,
informal, flexible, results-
oriented, supportive of
learning opportunities
Millennials
1981-2000
14% and increasing rapidly
Optimistic, able to multitask,
tenacious, technologically
savvy, driven to learn and
grow, team-oriented, socially
responsible
Motivational, collaborative,
positive, educational,
organized, achievement-
oriented, able to coach
-It is said that the study of inter-generational values and of related attitudes and behaviour is in its
infancy
-Organizations may have to tailor job designs, leadership styles, and benefits to the generational mix of
their workforces
Cultural Differences in Values
-Business has become global in its scope
-It is difficult to forge business links across cultures
Work Centrality
-Work is values differently across cultures
-Those with more central interest in work were more likely to report that they would continue working
despite the new-found wealth
-People for whom work was a central-life interest tend to work more hours
-Cross-cultural differences in work centrality can lead to adjustment problems for foreign employees
and managers
Hofstede’s Study
-Hofstede discovered four basic dimensions along which work related values differed across cultures
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BU288 Chapter 4 Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour Week 3
power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, and individualism/collectivism
-Michael Bond later did work that catered to more Eastern culture and came up with a fifth dimension,
the long term/short term orientation
-Power distance - the extent to which society members accept an unequal distribution of power,
including those who hold more power and those who hold less in small power distance
cultures, inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible and power differences are
downplayed
-Uncertainty avoidance the extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and
ambiguous situations. Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules and regulations, hard
work, conformity, and security
-Masculinity/femininity more masculine cultures clearly differentiate gender roles, support the
dominance of men, and stress economic performance. More feminine cultures accept fluid
gender roles, stress sex equality, and stress quality of life.
-Individualism/collectivism more individualistic societies tend to stress independence,
individual initiative, and privacy. More collective cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to
one’s family. Canada are among the most individualistic societies
-Long term/short term orientation Cultures with a long-term orientation tend to stress
persistence, persistence, perseverance, thrift, and close attention to status differences. Cultures
with a short-term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability, face saving, and social
niceties. Canada is a short term
Implications of Cultural Variation
Exporting OB Theories
-An important message from the cross-cultural study of values is that organizational behaviour theories,
research, and practices from North America might not translate well to other societies
-It’s just the answers hat differ
-A good fit between company practices and the host culture is important
Importing OB Theories
-Not all theories and practices concerning OB are designed in North America or even the West
-Understanding cultural value differences can enable organizations to successfully import management
practices by tailoring the practice to the home culture’s concerns
Appreciating Global Customers
-An appreciation of cross-cultural differences in values is essential to understanding the needs and
tastes of customers or clients around the world
-Appreciating the values of global customers is also important when the customers enter your own
culture
Developing Global Employees
-Success in translating management practices to other cultures, importing practices developed
elsewhere, and appreciating global customers are no things that happen by accident
-Companies need to select, train, and develop employees to have a much better appreciation of
differences in cultural values and the implications of these differences for behaviour in organizations
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BU288 Chapter 4 Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour Week 3
What are Attitudes?
-Attitude - a fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation,
person, or category of people
-Attitudes influence our behaviour toward some object, situation, person, or group
-Attitudes are not always consistent with behaviours, attitudes provide useful information over and
above he actions that we can observe
-Behaviour is most likely to correspond to attitudes when people have direct experience with the target
of the attitude and when the attitude is held confidently
-Attitudes are a function of what we think and what we feel
-Attitudes are the product of a related belief and value
Belief +Value = Attitude Behaviour
-Ex. “My job is interfering with my family life” (Belief), “I dislike anything that hurts my family (Value), “I
dislike my job” (Attitude), “I’ll search for another job” (Behaviour)
-The specific attitudes, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment have a strong impact on
people’s positive contributions to their work
What is Job Satisfaction?
-Job satisfaction a collection of attitudes that works have about their jobs
-The first is facet satisfaction the tendency for an employee to be more or less satisfied with various
facets of the job. Ex. “I love my job but hate my boss”
-Overall satisfaction an overall or summary indicator o a person’s attitude toward his or her job that
cuts across the various facets. Ex. “On the whole, I really like my job, although a couple of aspects could
stand some improvement”
What Determines Job Satisfaction?
Discrepancy
-Attitudes such as job satisfaction are the product of associated beliefs and values these two factors
cause differences in job satisfaction even when jobs are identical
-People might differ in their beliefs about the job in question they might differ in their perceptions
concerning the actual nature of the job
-Even if individuals perceive their jobs as equivalent, they might differ in what they want from the jobs
-Discrepancy theory a theory that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job
outcomes waned and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained
Fairness
-Issues o fairness affect bt what people want from their jobs and how tey react to the inevitable
discrepancies of organizational life
-There are three basic types of fairness:
Distributive Fairness
-Disributive fairness Fairness that occurs when people receive the outcomes they think they deserve
from their jobs
-It involves the ultimate distribution of work rewards and resources
-Equity theory a theory that job satisfaction stems from a comparison to the inputs one invests in a job
and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another group or person
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Document Summary

Values a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others. The preference aspect of this definition means that values have to do with what we consider good and bad. The words broad tendency mean that values are very general and that they do not predict behaviour in specific situations very well. People tend to hold values structured around such factors as achievement, power, autonomy, conformity, tradition, and social welfare. Most values are socially reinforced by parents, teachers, and representatives of religions. Many companies are attempting to understand the implications of having our distinctive generations in the workplace. Hard working, stable, loyal, thorough, detail-oriented, focused, emotional maturity. Independent, adaptable, creative, techno-literate, willing to challenge the status quo. Optimistic, able to multitask, tenacious, technologically savvy, driven to learn and grow, team-oriented, socially responsible. Treat as equals, warm and caring, mission-defined, democratic approach. Direct, competent, genuine, informal, flexible, results- oriented, supportive of learning opportunities.

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